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EMIGRATION FROM GOA: A HISTORICAL VIEW
Excerpt from the Goa Migration Study 2008 (Goa NRI Commission)

1. Introduction

Goans have been migrating before, during and after the
colonial times. From the beginning of the sixteenth century,
Goa became the earliest territory in the non-western world
that was exposed to Western culture and values. The influence
of the new Western culture, or rather, that fusion of Eastern
and Western cultures that the Goans grew up with, encouraged
traditions of knowledge, honesty and hard work and opened to
the doors to the world to Goans, providing them with a
distinct advantage wherever they went.

The influence of Christianity, Western education and cultural
syncretism endowed the Goans with an inclusive identity and
facilitated their migration and adaptation to new and
different cultural contexts. Goans have played a very
significant part, although not often fully recognised, in the
creation of modern Indian culture in different areas of life
and art.

The Goan identity has been acknowledged as being
unique and has been appreciated universally. The opinion poll
held in Goa in 1967, during which Goans decided against
merging Goa with any other neighbouring state, speaks volumes
for the determination of the Goans in preserving their unique
cultural identity and autonomy. Their cultural identity
earned national recognition when on May 31, 1987 Goa became
the 25th state in the Republic of India.

Goans living in different parts of the world have
carved out a world of their own on the solid
foundation of their ancient culture. A significant
portion of Goa's prosperity is accounted for by
international migration.i Remittances have enabled
Goans to step up their investment in education,
real estate and housing considerably. Besides
accounting for large remittances, the migrants have
also served as unofficial ambassadors of an
inclusive and unique culture. It is obvious that
migration studies help to understand the identity
of the emigrants who, in many instances, never
returned to their country of 11 origin. The more
connected they feel to their original identity,
culture and heritage, the greater will be their
contribution to their country of origin in terms of
remittances or as unofficial ambassadors.

The long history of Goan emigrants has been captured in the
very emotional Goan song in Konkani 'Adeus Korchea Vellar'
(The Time to Say Goodbye). It conveys the sentiments of a
people who have known the price of separation from a land
that is so full of scenic beauty, so peaceful yet lacking in
employment opportunities.ii Goa was a Portuguese enclave for
over four centuries; it had clearly demarcated political
boundaries.

Naturally, migration to destinations outside Goa involved
crossing national boundaries. Obviously, any out-migration
to India before Goa was integrated into the Indian Union was
perceived as international.

Christian (Catholic) Goans had a higher geographical and
occupational mobility because of their easy adaptability to
any environment, their cultural openness and hospitable
nature. Education was a strong factor influencing emigration.

Modern life has created serious problems for the migrants as
well as concerns for the host countries and countries of
origin. Violation of human rights of migrant workers and of
their families have led governments to initiate campaigns for
informing citizens about their rights and obligations and
preparing emigrants to solve their severe problems at the
place of destination.
From the beginning of the twentieth century, nations have
been paying greater attention to the grievance and
difficulties of the emigrants. Concerns, issues and problems
of the emigrants have been debated at the national level
since suitable solutions often eluded them, except for a
perception that solutions needed to be global and
sustainable.

Several nations have embarked on scientific studies of
migration movements and its dynamics in recent decades using
new data from surveys and they claim to have greater control
over migration for enacting legislation. Attempts are being
made in initiating policies and schemes for migrants' welfare
in the sending countries and also for involving the migrants
in the development of the origin countries. In spite of the
Goan emigration spanning centuries and becoming worldwide,
the phenomenon has not yet been examined in depth. The task
is not going to be easy due to lack of reliable records. 12

The Portuguese administration of Goa was not in the
practice of registering the number of Goan
emigrants. In the years of the Great Depression,
the Portuguese Law Commission in Goa had appointed
a committee of inquiry to study the social and
economic conditions of Goans in British India and
to recommend the means for securing the wellbeing
of the migrants.

This committee received support from the civil and
ecclesiastical authorities and from the entire Goan community
which offered financial and medical assistance. As a result a
Goan Emigration Fund was created.iii The committee organised
relief work, including a subsistence allowance to the poor
Goans, and encouraged the emigrants to initiate projects back
home.

Critical issues affecting Goa were widely discussed. This
period also witnessed the beginning of a serious study of
Goan migration. Perceptions about Goan emigration abound as
do theories to explain the process of emigration itself.
Emigrants constitute a significant economic force both in the
host country and in the country of origin. Remittances by
migrants have done more to alleviate poverty rather than help
develop other sectors.

In the past, the survival and development of certain
industries critically depended on emigrants. Besides sending
regular remittances, every emigrant who returned to Goa even
for a short vacation contributed to its economy. In general,
migration brought about visible improvement to the social and
economic life of the Goans.

Traditional explanations viewed Goan emigration as
an involuntary act or as a desperate act of escape
from a hapless situation by those who looked down
upon Goa as primitive and a place where one could
do nothing do raise one's personal status. High
population density, which exerted pressure on
employment, was a major cause for migration.

There was a perception that the most able-bodied Goans
(educated or uneducated, skilled or unskilled) were forced to
regard migration as the natural course and took advantage of
it at the earliest available opportunity, except perhaps the
Hindus. Additionally, the nationalistic discourse began to
hammer a feeling into the emigrant Goans as being
'denationalised' Goans with little love for Goa.iv Goans felt
that a great number of Portuguese laws which were
particularly harsh forced the natives to emigrate.v To the
Portuguese Government in Goa, Goan emigration was inevitable
and large-scale 13 migration to British India was a necessary
economic evil, although many of them were happy to return if
job opportunities could be found in Goa.

Besides work in the moribund agricultural sector, Goa could
offer little else.

Recent studies recognise that migration involves more than
passive reactions to unfavourable economic opportunities at
home and it does not necessarily lead to a clean snapping of
ties with the country of origin. People take deliberate
measures to improve their lifestyle and that of their
relatives in other geographical locations with more
favourable labour markets. In fact, this constitutes a
determinant for the large-scale and global dispersion or
international migration of Christian Goans in recent
decades.vi

Wherever Goans have settled down, they contributed
very significantly. A major wave of migration from
Goa began in 1830, initially towards British India,
made possible by improvements of transport, the
commercial decadence of Goa and the growing demand
for labour in cities like Bombay and Pune.

The fact that the Goans were the only Westernized and
academically qualified persons that the British could count
upon, explains their recruitment to several sectors like
education, administration and health. The presence of Goans
in large numbers outside Goa can be judged by the fact that
their remittances were essential for balancing the commercial
transactions in Goa.vii

Goa, although a small place, has a vast international
diaspora. Goans have travelled during the colonial times to
almost all corners of the world, so much so that it would be
difficult to name a country without a Goan community.viii

Unfortunately, we lack reliable statistics on Goan emigration
which makes the numbers rather speculative. However, we might
venture to assert that the widening adverse balance of trade
served as an impetus to emigration. The majority of emigrants
did not have the necessary background and the Portuguese
Government did almost nothing for the prospective migrants.ix

Emigration, whether to places like Myanmar decades ago or to
the Gulf in more recent times, has come largely from the
Christian population in the State due to a range of
historical factors. Hindu Goans also migrated but they formed
a small minority in comparison with Christians. Assessment of
the positive and negative consequences of migration can
provide new insights into its impact on society as a whole
and on particular 14 categories (e.g,, migrant households).
In this chapter we attempt to make such an assessment.

2. The State of Goa (political unit)

A brief history of Goa will serve as an introduction to the
determinants and consequences of Goan migration to India and
overseas and to issues relating to migration such as
identity, adaptability and emergence of new cultural
patterns.

Goa, on the southwest coast of India, has an area of 3,701
square kilometres. The Bhojas, Mauryas, Chalukyas,
Rashtrakutas, Shilaharas, Kadambas, Yadavas, Bahmanis, the
Vijayanagar and the Bijapur dynasties ruled Goa at different
times. During ancient times, Goa was famous for its seaport
and international commercial traffic.

It is no wonder that the Goans could have had commercial
connections with the ancient cultures of Mesopotamia and the
Indus Valley. Goans traded with East Africa in the tenth
century which shows that they were truly seafarers and
intercontinental movers. Goa's global trade and traffic
increased manifold when the Portuguese captured it from the
Muslim rulers in 1510.

The city of Goa evolved into a major port of call
and as a business station between Europe and the
East. In 1530, it became the capital of the
Portuguese Eastern Empire. A unique culture, a
fusion of Eastern and Western values, Goa began to
be increasingly admired for its Indo-Portuguese
cultural and architectural characteristics from the
nineteenth century.x It remained a Portuguese
colony for about 450 years until 1961.

Many Portuguese seamen died in the tropics and so the
Christian Goans became part of the Portuguese seafaring
tradition. They sailed on Portuguese ships throughout the
Indian Ocean to the Far East, Africa, Brazil and Europe. We
come across Goans in Macao since the seventeenth century. In
1784, 150 Goan soldiers arrived in Macao to defend it.
Hindus have been somewhat reluctant to sail due to the old
religious and cultural prejudices or to the attachment to the
joint family with its traditional values. There is little
evidence to suggest that Hindu Goans migrated outside the
Indian subcontinent. 15

The intense missionary activity led the local Hindu
population to convert to Christianity. Many Hindus resisted
conversion and migrated to the neighbouring regions of
Karwar, Belgaum and Mangalore during the period of the mass
conversion movement initiated in the 1540s. Migration was
preferred to abandoning traditional religious and cultural
practices; heavy taxation was another reason for leaving the
land.xi

Reputed for its long white sandy beaches, and houses and
churches with unique architectural traits, Goa has become the
most attractive tourist destination along India's western
coast. The state of Goa has more than 1.3 million people
which include Hindus (65%), Christians (34%), and a small
community of Muslims. Before 1961, Goa had a population
comprising 42 percent of Christians, the majority living in
'Old Conquests'. At this point, we need to clarify two
concepts: the 'Old Conquests' of Goa (territories conquered
by the Portuguese from 1510 to 1543) and the 'New Conquests'
(territories contiguous to the Old Conquests which were
annexed and added to Goa in the last quarter of the
eighteenth century).

The New Conquests cover three fourths of the area
of present state of Goa and have remained
predominantly Hindu. Obviously, the Portuguese
influence on the Old Conquests has been significant
as is evident from a large Christian population.
The majority of emigrants have originated from
here. Obviously most studies on emigration have
been linked the Old Conquests (Bardez, Salcete,
Tiswadi and Mormugao).

Conversion to Christianity, Western education and Portuguese
law brought radical changes in lifestyle, including dietary
habits, attire and world view. Education, through the medium
of Portuguese language, was reserved to Christians although
not exclusively until the 1750s when more egalitarian social
reforms were introduced in Portugal and Goa.

In 1910, Portuguese law mandated a secular education and from
then on, many Hindus availed of education in the Portuguese
medium. The Portuguese established one or two schools in
every village and in the middle of the nineteenth century
they founded in the capital city of Panaji, a Lyceum where
all sciences were taught, a Medical College and a Law
College. Many intellectuals, doctors and lawyers studied
there and subsequently emigrated to other Portuguese colonies
like Mozambique, Angola and Macao.xii 16

Although the Old Conquests were densely populated,
the Portuguese did not do much to set up new
industries, and the existing ones proved inadequate
to generate sufficient employment. Consequently,
nearly one tenth of the population was forced to
migrate.

In 1930s, 70,000 Goans had migrated, out of which 55,000
migrated to British India. In 1960, on the eve of Goa's
political liberation there were 100,000 emigrants in a
population of 600,000. Surprisingly, in spite of the lack of
employment opportunities misery never prevailed in Goa. Goa
has no history of indentured labour or a system of
quasi-slavery of agricultural work force created by the
British -- as a consequence of the abolition of slavery in
the British Empire in 1834 and the shortage of workers -- for
their sugarcane and tea plantations, in other colonies.xiii 17

a. Society and Economy

The major traditional occupation was subsistence farming of
land owned jointly by the gauncars (native inhabitants) and
managed by the village communities, but soon after the
arrival of the Portuguese a system of private property was
introduced. Despite being an agrarian society only a small
percentage of the population, about 10% derived direct
sustenance from the land; scarcely 2% of the population owned
landed property, which yielded a return sufficient for the
maintenance of the owner and of his family.xiv

The agriculturists who cultivated their rice fields earned
just enough to keep themselves and their families alive. At
least 40% of the adult male population had to migrate in
order to earn a living. The population census of 1881 shows
that the number of cultivators of 'toddy' and makers of
'jaggery' (coconut confection) in the entire 'Estado da
India' (Goa, Daman and Diu) was 7,512, but from that year to
1910 the number came down to almost 4,000 (i.e., 3,512
persons had emigrated).

In contrast to the deteriorating economic conditions,
declining agricultural output and rise of population, various
international developments taking place around the middle of
the nineteenth century raised fresh hopes of employment
opportunities. The introduction of steamships reduced
distances. The military and civilian settlements of the
British in India, Burma and Middle East created a huge demand
for personnel who could meet European tastes in food, drink,
music, dress and medicine.

Christians, who had been distressed by the adverse
local conditions, took advantage of these
opportunities, unlike Hindus and Muslims, and they
worked as cooks, stewards, butlers, musicians,
tailors, ayahs (servant maids) and bakers; a few
worked as pharmacists, clerks, doctors and nurses.
The honesty and hard work demonstrated by the Goans
stood them in good stead and the British officials
and commercial companies began preferring them as
their employees.

Early migrants rarely brought their families along with them
and many of those who came to British India stayed at the
famed residential clubs for workers ('Coors') founded by
Goans as a support structure for migrants.xv From the 1920s
the Portuguese government began levying an 'emigration tax'
on every Goan intending to leave Goa in search of
employment.xvi In 1933, an 'emigration tax' of 18 10-12
'tangas' (Rs 1.00) per person brought in an annual revenue of
Rs 60,000.00.

There was an agitation against that tax which was,
interestingly, also imposed on Goan emigrants returning home.
Moreover the Portuguese government introduced a 'military
tax' to be paid before a Goan's departure from Goa to seek
employment elsewhere despite the evident fact that the
emigrant contributed substantially to the Goan economy
through remittances.

Emigrants had to pay a tax on their property in Goa
which forced many to invest outside Goa. Around
this time when entire families emigrated
permanently they preferred to sell their ancestral
properties in Goa.

Thus important Goan settlements appeared in Santa Cruz in
Mumbai, Calcutta, Karachi, Aden, etc.xvii In the 1920s,
emigration to British India was on the increase but the
thenworld economic crisis forced many to return to Goa.xviii

In 1928, the emigrants had sent home remittances to the tune
of Rs. 134.25 lakh. The remittances enabled the emigrants'
families to maintain a high standard of living as they could
pay for luxury goods, like silk clothing and fine cotton,
wines, liqueur, beer and cigars.xix Goa owed much to the
emigrants whose remittances were responsible for covering the
state's annual deficit of Rs. 138 lakh.xx According to
official statistics on import/export as reported in the
newspaper Times of India,xxi exports for 1928 was Rs. 46 lakh
and imports, Rs.184 lakh, or four times more than exports.xxii

As living in Goa became more expensive, emigration to British
India increased. The Portuguese government encouraged
migration and the British welcomed it.xxiii With the
departure of the British from India in 1947, Goans who were
employed in considerable numbers in British firms lost their
jobs which resulted in their return home in 1948-59.xxiv

Further, the prohibition of liquor led to the closing down of
many hotels and restaurants owned or staffed by Goans.
Suitable employment was scarce and even the educated Goans
experienced great difficult in securing jobs in the
Government. Earlier, British East Africa had attracted a
large number of Goans, but the immigration laws in course of
time became severe and work permits were not easily
available.

Angola and Mozambique opened their labour markets to skilled
and unskilled emigrants. Nevertheless, many continued to
migrate to Belgaum, Pune and Bombay to educate their children
in English medium schools and colleges. 19

With a stagnant Goan economy, Goans looked outwards for work.
Moreover, most of the communities like the Gawdas and Kunbis
(original inhabitants of Goa) as well as several other
communities of agriculturists gave up their farming
activities and shifted to construction-related sectors as
agriculture could not offer enough returns. Moreover, some
held work on the farm in low esteem.

The constant increase in tax on the coconut produce
caused the emigration of many tillers to British
India. The discovery of iron ore and manganese
resources in Goa in the 1950s provided some relief,
but even that did not prevent considerable
emigration. After the liberation of Goa in 1961
further emigration occurred. The tourism industry
in the 70s provided a huge relief.

The mining industry and the accompanying alluring incentives
created acute problems like scarcity of labour for
agriculture. The wages which labourers were offered in the
mines were twice as much as the wages paid for working in the
fields or palm groves in the villages. The labourer could not
resist the offer. The mass departure of labour to the mining
sector was unstoppable, creating fears of shortage of labour
for the rice fields and palm trees. The government persuaded
the mine owners to use machinery in order to minimise damage
to agriculture.

Emigration was held responsible for the dwindling of
agriculture and industry, so also for many other misfortunes
of Goa.xxv Emigration slowed down the economic progress of
Goa. But restrictions on exports due to tariff barriers
reduced the country's productivity. Emigration rose due to
the scarcity of work, lack of industries and the
disproportion between wages and cost of living caused by the
government's policy of high customs duties.xxvi Sadly, Goan
emigrants contributed to foreign lands at the cost of their own.

b. Female Migration

Women rarely accompanied their migrant husbands. However, the
migration of Goan women to the neighbouring states is not a
recent phenomenon though there are no statistics to show the
flow of female migration. Female migration to British India
and Africa began in the first half of the twentieth century,
and to other parts of world from 1961. Some migrated due to
the high cost of living in Goa and a few others, to further
their studies. Goan women in Africa and India took up jobs of
teachers, clerks, secretaries, typists, nurses, and worked in
factories owned by the rich British and Parsi 20 families.

Their standard of living was much higher than that
of most of their counterparts in Goa.xxvii The fact
that they were absorbed in such jobs reflects the
greater independence and skills of Goan women.

Some women migrated alone, others to marry Goans, these often
settled in British India or Bombay. These women from the
poorer classes, were unskilled workers between the ages of
18-45 years from Christian and Hindu backgrounds. Women from
middle and upper classes seldom migrated except for
furthering their studies or accompanying with their husbands.
Lack of institutions of higher education in Goa led some
parents to send their children for higher studies to Bombay,
Bangalore, Pune, Belgaum and Dharwar.xxviii

Migration also had some ill effects. As reported in 1923, 510
Goan women were working as prostitutes and for this reason
the Church in Goa began discouraging migration of women.xxix
The majority of such women belonged the tradition of temple
dancing girls. Emigration might have led to some moral
degradation but the conduct of the emigrants, devotion to
work, employer and family was commendable and their services
were greatly sought after.xxx

c. Trends in Goan Emigration

Large-scale international migration from Goa took place only
during the past 170 years. Migration trends according to
destination or changing patterns could be illustrated in
chronological order as follows: British India and Asia: From
1850s, with the establishment of the railway lines and the
steam ships, the Goans, especially the Christians equipped
with English education, went mainly to Bombay and also to
Pune, Dharwar and Calcutta, and many, by their own efforts
and competence, occupied important positions.xxxi

Some chose to travel to Karachi, others to the east across
mainland India to ports like Madras and Calcutta and thence
From the early decades of the twentieth century, Goans began
settling down mainly in Portuguese and British colonies in
East Africa. Europe and America: Considerable emigration
took place to these regions after World War II. 21

Gulf Countries: This region became the main destination for
Goans with the discovery of oil in 1970s.

Destinations were determined mostly by economic factors such
as opportunities for employment or labour shortage.
Immigration laws were another major determinant. But the
choice of destination could also be influenced by contacts --
relatives and friends or acquaintances who had migrated
earlier. Clubs and associations sprang up to provide cheap
accommodation to the newly arrived migrants. Goans generally
migrated on the strengths of personal contacts, with no
government sponsorship or church support.xxxii

3. British India - Asia

Goans began working for the British when the naval fleet of
the British Indian government was stationed in Goa between
1797 and 1813, in anticipation of an attack by the French
(which never took place) on the British Indian Possessions.
The British naval personnel recruited Christian Goans to work
for them because of the latter's western penchant which
pleased the British. When the British fleet withdrew from Goa
and established stations in Bombay, Karachi, Madras, Calcutta
and Singapore their Goan staff followed them.xxxiii

Migration of Goans to British India continued throughout the
early part of the nineteenth century, but it was since the
middle of the century that a significant flow of migration
took place. Immediately after the Indian Mutiny in 1857, the
British reasserted their power with the proclamation by Queen
Victoria of the takeover of the Indian affairs by the British
Crown. The British then began setting up a vast railway
network for the quick movement of troops.

The Goans poured out of Goa and got jobs on the
Great Indian Peninsula Railway and the Bombay
Baroda and Central Indian Railway. The construction
of the Western Indian Portuguese railways in the
late nineteenth century provided additional impetus
for the Goans from the Old Conquests to migrate,
and subsequently they settled in large numbers in
Hubli, Belgaum, Mumbai and Pune.xxxiv

The Portuguese government opened English medium schools in
Bardez and Salcete to prepare the Goan emigrants, so much so
that there were more such schools than 22 Portuguese ones.
Moreover parents sent their wards to the neighbouring cities
of Pune, Belgaum, Mumbai and Bangalore since life there was
cheaper and English education was more advantageous.xxxv

In 1911, the census of British India registered
636,75 individuals born in Portuguese India.
Excess of population in Goa, poor management of
agriculture and absence of industries produced
waves of migration.

In 1919, Goans settled in Bengal (1,000) and Calcutta
(800).xxxvi In 1931, Goa had a population of 500,000. Around
55,000 to 60,000 people, mostly from the Old Conquests,
hacked a living in British India. Spread throughout India
they formed prominent groups in Bombay (45000), Karachi
(3,500), Calcutta (1,000), Rangoon (800) and of these only
7,500 were Hindus and Muslims.xxxvii In the same year,
emigration increased since the emigrants moved with their
families with the intention of settling down especially in
Bombay and Karachi. In 1933 there were 100,000 Goan
emigrants of whom 60,000 lived in British India.xxxviii

British India ran into a serious recession in the 1930s. The
Goan Emigrants Fund Committee, organised to deal with the
crisis, through its relief measure, trained many poor,
especially women in sewing, nursing, care of infants, etc.,
and helped them to secure employment on reasonably good
wages.

Lack of training resulted in their being exploited by
unscrupulous employers. The number of educated among the
local population had increased, but they did not mind doing
any job regardless of the wage. On the other hand, the Goans
showed lack of adaptability and initiative; they waited for
clerical work and showed little interest in any other work.

Seamen, during their enforced leisure, would not
accept work in the agricultural sector. Domestic
workers were averse to working as salesperson,
likewise gardening or rearing of poultry was
abhorred.xxxix Unemployment was widespread among
the Goans in British India in 1936 and one of the
measures proposed by the Goan Emigrants Fund
Committee was to settle them on land left
uncultivated in the New Conquests due to shortage
of labour.

Despite facilities and subsidies from the government, lack of
water and failed monsoons discouraged the agriculturist
settlers. A great number had returned to Goa; others had
opted for the Gulf countries. 23

In 1938, Bombay counted 45,000 Goans, Karachi 4,500, Pune
2,500, Calcutta 1,200, Rangoon 800 and Nagpur 500, besides
smaller numbers in other centres. Of these only 8,000 were
Hindus and Muslims and the rest were Christians.xl World War
II opened up opportunities for labour and in 1947, there were
around 100,000 Goans in British India,xli of whom 10,000 were
illiterate and working in low-paid jobs as cooks and as ayahs.

Ten years later, in 1956, the number of Goans in India and
Karachi continued to be 100,000.xlii Wherever they had been,
they founded institutes, reading rooms, cultural centres,
leisure venues for social conviviality, and established
charitable associations, all of which revealed their sense of
solidarity. Celebrations of feasts of saints and patrons of
their native villages carried out with fervour and pomp speak
volumes for their attachment to tradition. Around 1958, food
grains in Goa became more expensive than in British India
compelling many Goans to migrate increasingly.xliii The Goan
migrants lived on modest salaries; the majority lived on a
monthly salary of less than Rs 100.00 in 1938.xliv

a. Bombay

Bombay belonged to the Portuguese until 1661 when it was
given to Britain as part of the dowry of Queen Catherine who
was married to Charles II of England. Since then the British
helped Goans to migrate and some families settled in
Mazagaon.

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, when Bombay was
growing as a business centre the number of Goans was already
high and in the 1950s, Bombay counted 8,000 Goans who
occupied positions in business, liberal professions and
administration, and later female emigrants of lower strata
joined the domestic labour force.xlv

Emigration increased with the economic development of the
city. During World War I, there were over 12,000 Goan seamen
in Bombay and after the war around 7,500. Goan emigration
must have increased 30 to 50 per cent between 1915-1935.xlvi
Around 12,000 Goans worked in public services in Bombay in
1956.xlvii

Hindu Brahmins, culturally and educationally more
advanced, migrated to Bombay during the early
1900s; some established jewellery shops and did
well as a community. Christians from lower
communities migrated and opened tailoring shops;
the more 24 resourceful ones opened restaurants and
guest-houses.xlviii A number of Goans improved
their lot, while many others had to struggle to
survive.

The Goan Emigrants Fund Committee, an official organisation
established in Bombay, reported serious unemployment, poorly
paid jobs and extreme poverty among the Goans. Unemployment
worsened with the arrival of labourers from other parts of
India in the 1930s who were willing to work for any wage,
while the Goans were not willing to leave Bombay or forgo the
amenities of urban life to settle in Goan villages.

Although the Goa government announced easy loans and enacted
legislation on land tenure, the Goans did not seem to be
interested in availing of these facilities.xlix They depended
absolutely on British India. Reduced exports from Goa on the
one hand and expensive imports on the other combined with the
return of emigrants to Goa who remained idle, deepened the
economic crisis.l

The employment situation in Bombay was of serious concern to
the Portuguese government in Goa, since Goa was totally
dependent on economic conditions in British India.li The
Portuguese government did not spare any effort to find
different solutions and framed policies to resolve the issue.
To alleviate the poverty of Goans in Bombay, the Goa
government sought to repatriate those with no possibility of
finding employment in Bombay. The government motivated the
expatriates to take up land for cultivation in the Sanguem
region of Goa with financial assistance from the
government.lii

The Goan community in Bombay was one of the most active in
several fields including the establishment of schools. The
city of Bombay became a place for exile and political
activity for the Goans in the second half of the nineteenth
century, when Goa experienced political uncertainty as a
result of the establishment of constitutional monarchy in
Portugal in 1820.liii

Bombay, a place to migrate to, was since the 1950s, replaced
by Bangalore, the Gulf countries, United Kingdom, United
States, Canada and Australia, these being the most popular
destinations in recent years. Bombay had become a stepping
stone for migration to different parts of the world. 25

b. Pakistan

The Goans, mostly Christians, arrived in Karachi in 1842 when
the British occupied that small fishing village.liv Despite
the social constraints imposed on them, this cohesive
minority community achieved quick success. Goans served as
clerks in government offices, in the armed forces and some
opened businesses.lv

Already a sizable number were residing in the city
in 1869 and later, from 1913, the 'coors' assisted
the working class to migrate to Pakistan. By the
turn of the century, several Goans had established
business houses of which a few became public
companies with Goans as their chief executives.
Many streets in Karachi were named after eminent Goans.

In 1947, Partition created new opportunities for qualified
Goans to occupy high positions in government services due to
the departure of the British and the Hindus.lvi However, the
formation of Pakistan in 1947, created uncertainty among the
Goans and with Goa's liberation in 1961 and its political
incorporation into the Indian Union, the Goans in Pakistan
had the links with their homeland completely severed. Many
Goans, mostly young, left Karachi. There were more than 5,000
Goans in Karachi in 1958.

c. Burma

When the Portuguese first went to Burma in the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries, they must have taken with them some
Goans but they did not settle there permanently. From the end
of the nineteenth century, Christian Goans began to migrate
to Burma or Myanmar as it is known today, but it was from the
early 20th century, that many settled in East Rangoon. Burma
always had an isolationist policy and never welcomed
foreigners till the 1980s.lvii

In 1886, King Thibaw was dethroned by the British and the
whole of Burma came under British rule. Many Goans were
transferred from the Indian Posts and Telegraphs Department
and Indian Railways (mostly from Karachi and Calcutta) to
Burma. In addition, many Goans with musical talent went to
Burma in the 1920s to provide their services to the silent
movie industry and to the flourishing cinema houses in 1930s.
Many of them stayed on as music teachers, dealers in musical
instruments and formed bands for clubs and hotels. We could
assume the existence of migratory waves of Goans to Burma 26
in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.lviii
There were 800 Goans in Rangoon in 1931.

When World War II broke out in Burma, there were no more than
a hundred Goan families living there. When the Japanese
planes bombed the city of Rangoon (Yangon) in 1941, Goan
emigrants were caught in the real life drama for survival.

Many trekked through jungles and mountains and streams amidst
great dangers and hardships back to India where they settled
in different places. Some Goans decided to stay on in Burma
during the Japanese occupation and a few others opted for
Burmese nationality. The Japanese invasion was the end of the
Goan emigration.lix

Burma became an independent republic in 1948.

4. East Africa

From as early as the sixteenth century, Goans had
helped the Portuguese to penetrate the inhospitable
territories in Africa.lx In the eighteenth century,
Goan traders settled in Mozambique and other parts
of East Africa. They participated in the trade in
ivory and gold between Goa and East Africa and
established large import-export businesses.lxi In
1921, the East Africa statistics of business listed
426 Goans.lxii

The second quarter of the nineteenth century witnessed
increasing interest and intense competition among the
European nations for laying exclusive claims on African
territories. This rivalry culminated in the Berlin Conference
(1884-85) and the British Ultimatum to Portugal (1890) meant
to regulate European colonisation and trade in Africa.
Finally, however, the African continent was divided among the
European competitors. The years following the 'Scramble of
Africa' saw a large number of emigrants assisting the
colonial nations in consolidating their claims.

Between 1890 and 1895, when the British government took over
the administration in East Africa, the policy of employing
Goans in the colonial civil service and telegraph offices was
already established. By 1890, there were 160 Goans in
Mombassa forming the backbone of the port administration.
When the British colonial government began constructing the
Uganda Railways in 1896, Goans were employed as stewards and
administrative staff for the East African Railways &
Harbours. There was however no indentured labour from
Goa.lxiii

At the turn of the century, emigration increased with the 27
expansion of British and Portuguese colonialism in Africa.
Knowledge of Portuguese and English helped the Goans.

The British India Steam Navigation Company (BISNC) had
employed Goans as clerks in their offices around the Indian
Ocean as early as 1874 and the company began relying on Goan
staff to run its offices in East Africa.lxiv On the whole,
Goans made tremendous progress in cities like Louren?o
Marques (today Maputo), Beira, Dar es Salaam, Nairobi,
Kampala, Mombassa and Zanzibar.lxv

Emigration reached a peak in the years between the World Wars
(1918 to 1939), when many Goan seamen who had served in the
Merchant or Royal Navy during the First World War moved to
East Africa with their families.lxvi With the independence of
India, many Goans employed in civil services and the army in
British India were offered jobs in East Africa by the British
government and a large number migrated between 1948 and 1959
and settled there for years until the independence of those
countries.lxvii

Goans contributed to pioneering work in the fields
of medicine, education, etc.lxviii Acute
unemployment hit Africa and Persia in 1930s forcing
hundreds of Goans to return home. The shipping
companies, always appreciative of the Goans'
performance and loyalty, began retrenching their
staff. It is pointed out that over 2000 unemployed
Goans in British East Africa had no financial
resources to return to India.lxix

a. Mozambique

Migration to Mozambique, a Portuguese colony, began in the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries but in the following
century we hear of Goan administrators, missionaries and
colonisers in control of 'Prazos da Zamb?zia'.lxx

The Portuguese colonies especially Mozambique recruited Goans
who were literate in Portuguese to work as clerks and
administrators. Some Goans became very rich and contributed
to the pacification or colonisation of local tribal chiefs
and population with their own local army in the region of
Zambezi. Others occupied high posts in the
administration.lxxi

The district administrator in Goa promoted emigration to
Mozambique. In 1897, the government appointed an Emigration
Commission (Comiss?o Protectora da Emigra??o) Mozambique
for the purpose of gathering all information regarding the
places where 28 the Goans could find employment as well as
information on salaries, and the government assisted those
who wished to migrate.lxxii Goans migrated to three major
cities: Maputo, Beira and Nampula. Maputo and Beira, regions
with a significant community, became favourite destinations
since the Goans possessed skills associated with public
institutions, administration and white collar jobs such as
doctors, judges, teachers, etc.lxxiii Older Goans worked in
administrative positions whereas the younger generation with
better education opted for liberal professions.lxxiv It is
observed that most Goans preferred white-collar jobs rather
than manual ones.

At present, around a thousand families of Goan origin reside
in Mozambique and many of the older ones would like to return
and settle down in Goa. Some of these Goans have attained
high positions in professional fields whereas others have not
done so well.lxxv Mozambique gained its independence in 1975
after twelve years of armed struggle.

b. Uganda

When Uganda was declared a British protectorate in 1894 there
were already Goans there.lxxvi Some had come during the
construction of the Uganda Railway and stayed on as civil
servants under the British administration. The law-abiding
character of the Goan community stood out remarkably.lxxvii
More Goans arrived in Kampala, Uganda in 1900' and
distinguished themselves in the field of sports and helped in
the development of sporting activities and musical
entertainment through the Goan Institute of Kampala.

In 1960, events in Uganda gave cause for concern, forcing
some to migrate to the West and others to return to Goa.
Goans, being industrious and peace-loving, played an
important role in the civil society and economic development
of Uganda. In East Africa, they earned the commendation of
high officers of the British Empire and lofty appreciation
from various governors.lxxviii Uganda became independent in
1960.

c. Tanganyika

Estimates show that 7,000 Goans resided in Tanganyika before
its independence in 1961, of which about 15 per cent still
remain in Tanzania, mostly in Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar, Arusha
and Mwanza. The majority returned to India, many from
Zanzibar moved to the 29 Gulf but a significant number went
to Canada, the United Kingdom, the USA, Australia, New
Zealand, Sweden and elsewhere. Even after the independence of
Tanganyika, many Goans continued to work in foreign
commercial banks until they were nationalised by President
Julius Nyerere. With the banks nationalised and the civil
service not really attractive, more and more Goans moved into
the private sector.

Goans in Dar es Salaam (and other towns) owned bars,
bakeries, clothing and tailoring shops, musical instrument
stores, butcheries, 'soda factories', etc., and contributed
considerably to photography business.lxxix The two former
British colonies, the United Republic of Tanganyika and
Zanzibar decided to unite in 1964, and soon after, in the
same year, it was renamed as the United Republic of Tanzania.

d. Kenya

The recorded history of Goans in Kenya goes as far back as
1865 with the arrival and establishment of Goan business
houses in Mombassa, but at the turn of the century the influx
increased. They arrived as sailors, cooks, tailors, railway
employees and clerks. Their preference for white-collar jobs
led them to found institutes such as the Goan Institute,
Mombassa in 1901, the Goan Institute, Nairobi in 1905 and the
Goan Gymkhana in 1936. Magnificent churches appeared wherever
there was a small community of Goans in towns and cities of
Kenya. It is said that there were 30,000 Goans in Kenya,
largely in Nairobi, in 1956.lxxx Presently there are only
about 500 Goan families in Kenya.lxxxi The British granted
political independence to Kenya in 1963.

e. Zanzibar

There have been Goans in Zanzibar since the middle of the
nineteenth century, but the first group of Goan entrepreneurs
landed there at the turn of the twentieth century.

In olden days, Zanzibar was regarded as the principal
destination of Goans in East Africa. Goans in Zanzibar were
among the most prosperous people and held in high esteem by
the Europeans, Indians and natives for their peaceful living.
Some Goans enjoyed great popularity in the Zanzibar
Island.lxxxii Goans numbered 59 in 1873lxxxiii and roughly
869 in 1933, and they enjoyed the patronage and favours of
the Sultan of Zanzibar; many of 30 them held leading
positions in the government. At that time, the Consul and
Vice-consul of Portugal were Goans.lxxxiv

The majority of educated Goans served in the government of
Zanzibar others were employed in various commercial
enterprises; some ran their own business and the rest were
employed in various manual trades.lxxxv Goans had almost the
monopoly of all trades and professions and worked as sailors,
grocers, tailors, bakers, merchants and cooks. Because of
their integrity and dedication to work, the local government
invited a large number of Goans to join government service.
The result was that Goans who were pioneer merchants and
grocers in East Africa lost gradually their place in commerce
and trade.lxxxvi

The early sixties led to uncertainty for all Asians in
Africa, particularly in East Africa because of the imminence
of the independence of Kenya, Tanganyika and Uganda. Many
Goans living in British Africa enjoyed Portuguese nationality
but from 1961 they could opt for Indian citizenship. When
India became a member of the Commonwealth, Goans in East
Africa were allowed to register themselves as British
subjects and many availed of this option and acquired a
British passport, but some older Goans preferred to retain
their Indian citizenship because of a strong desire to retire
to Goa. Many Goans left for Britain from 1962 onwards.
Britain granted Zanzibar political independence in 1963.
Goans enjoyed a high standard of living in Africa and
generally did not think of returning to India, but the
independence of the African colonies left them with few
opportunities in Africa.lxxxvii Those without alternatives
returned to Goa. The younger generation migrated to the Gulf
countries or elsewhere. Those from the British East Africa
migrated to different English-speaking countries; those from
Mozambique and Angola left for Portugal and Brazil.lxxxviii

5. The West The Goan presence in the West is largely the
result of changes in the political and economic scenario of
Africa in the 1960s and 1970s which saw the departure of
British and Portuguese colonialism and the emergence of
independent nations.lxxxix Goans born and brought up in
Africa by virtue of having opted for the British and
Portuguese 31 nationalities found no favours with the local
governments and subsequently migrated to Britain, Portugal,
Canada, USA, Australia and New Zealand.

The expulsion of Asians from Uganda by President Idi Amin in
1972 led to many young Goans opting to settle in Canada. Most
Goans in the U.K. and Portugal came from East Africa.xc

a. Portugal

After World War II, the northern and central European
countries required specialised immigrant labour to respond to
the demands of industrialisation. Industrialisation in
Portugal started only in the 1950s, but even then it was
incapable of absorbing its entire labour force; hence it not
only had no need of recruiting labour from the colonies, but
its excess labour had to emigrate in large numbers.

One wave of emigration persisted for about a hundred years
from the second half of the nineteenth century when Goan
intellectuals migrated to Portugal for university education
in Lisbon and Coimbra and became clerics, doctors, engineers,
lawyers, magistrates, teachers, journalists, officials in the
army and navy, in the bureaucracy in Portugal or in its
colonies, and occupied high positions.xci Many settled in
Portugal but a few were attracted to the great centres of
culture and learning like England, France, Germany, Belgium,
Austria, Switzerland and Italy where they took up higher
studies. Those Goans who migrated to Portugal for higher
studies before 1961 and who eventually settled there,
belonged to certain elite families.

In 1961, Goa was liberated and integrated with India. At this
point the Goans could opt for Portuguese citizenship. A
number of Goan professionals in mid-life decided to migrate
to Portugal in the post-Liberation period; however, the
majority of them did not settle in Portugal but migrated to
the Portuguese colonies, especially Mozambique.xcii Some
elite emigrants did not encounter any initial difficulty in
getting assimilated in the new socio-economic milieu.

Until 1975, many Goans settled in Portugal consisted of
lawyers, students, etc., but from then on the number of Goans
increased significantly with the arrival of a large community
from Portugal's former colonies in Africa, who had opted for
Portuguese 32 nationality. Majority of Goans who entered
Portugal between 1974 and 1977 came from Mozambique and
Angola.xciii Civil war in the colonies, lack of job
opportunities and assured pension for government employees
caused Goans to emigrate to Portugal. These immigrants would
provide initial support to other emigrants from Goa in the
1980s.

The latest stream of emigration from Goa occurred in the
1990s. They consisted mostly of educated youth, kith and kin
of persons who once were Portuguese subjects, aspiring for
better economic opportunities and standard of living.
Migration to Portugal from the middle of 80s was partly due
to their receiving Portuguese nationality. However, since
1991, the General Consulate of Portugal in Goa facilitated
the acquisition of nationality more easily.

A study conducted in 1992, shows the presence of 11,000 Goans
in Portugal of whom 6,000 lived in the area of Lisbon. This
is indicative of a greater degree of integration of Goans
vis-?-vis other Indian communities in Portugal.xciv
Generally, Christian Goans were found in liberal professions
and administrative positions.

b. United Kingdom - London

Around the middle of the nineteenth century, increasing
numbers of Goans, consisting mostly of seamen abandoned by
their shipping masters, settled in London. Census for this
period excludes Goans and other Asians as a landlord could be
imprisoned for housing them, but there is evidence from other
sources to establish the presence of Goans in London.

With the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 ships from India
could travel to the U.K. by a shorter route. Companies such
as the British India Steam Navigation Company (BISNC), which
were already employing Goan crew in the Indian Ocean, now
hired them on voyages to London via Suez. The early Goan
settlers were eventually assimilated into the general
population of East London and ceased to exist as a distinct
community by the beginning of the twentieth century.xcv When
the African nations won their independence in early 1960s, a
significant number of Goans emigrated to the U.K. This
British Goan community came generally from the 'Old
Conquests' of Goa. 33

c. USA

The early Goan settlers in the US arrived from East Africa
around 80 years ago; they were not well educated. Those who
migrated in more recent times (say about 25 years ago) were
mostly professionals. The second generation migrant Goans
have no strong ties with Goa. Goans being multi-cultural
have adapted very easily wherever they have gone.
Guesstimates show that 5,000 Goan families lived in the USA
in the 1990s.xcvi d. Canada Emigration of Indians to Canada
was not attractive till 1947.xcvii

Although Goans started emigrating to Canada in the 1960s, it
is estimated that over 90 per cent of them arrived during the
1970s, largely from East Africa and Pakistan, and a smaller
group directly from Goa. Still more recently, there has been
an increasing number of Goans emigrating to Canada from the
Middle East countries, the majority being Christians,
consisting of skilled, semi-skilled workers and
professionals. Since Goans are not listed separately in
Canadian census data, no reliable statistics are available
regarding their population. However, it is estimated that
there are approximately 13,000 Goans in Ontario and another
10,000 in the rest of Canada.xcviii

In Toronto and Montreal informal 'village associations' serve
as friendship and support societies for both established
Goans and new arrivals. These 'village associations' came
into existence in the wake of the large-scale emigration of
Goan Christians to Bombay in the late nineteenth century. One
of the main purposes of such 'clubs' was to celebrate the
feast of the patron saints of the respective Goan villages
and thus renew the emigrants' ties with their native village.
These associations made it possible for the Goans to retain
their ethnic identity.

Goans have had the advantage of Western cultural linkages,
accumulated over four centuries, to aid them in adapting to
any new environment. Yet their desire to maintain alive their
traditions and unique culture is obvious.xcix The First
International Goan Convention in Toronto, Canada in 1988 as
well as the more recent one in 2008 in the same city, made a
spirited appeal to Goans to preserve and enhance their own
culture, heritage and social capital. 34

6. The Middle East
From the early decades of the twentieth century, Goans worked
in various capacities in Iran, Kuwait, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia,
Ethiopia, Aden, Bushire, Abadan and Basra.ci With the
establishment of the British petroleum companies in the Gulf
Countries, the Goan community increased further. There were
about 1,200 Goans in Bagdad, Basra, Abadan, Bahrain and Saudi
Arabia in 1956. Bahrain alone accounted for 400 Goans; there
were smaller Goan population in other Gulf Countries earlier
-- in Kuwait (120), Iran (250) and Saudi Arabia (350).cii
Some Goans were employed as white-collar workers while others
were employed as domestic helps.

The Gulf oil boon in the 1960s and 1970s attracted thousands
of Goans and this trend lasted until the early 1980s. Many
Goans, including the not so highly educated ones, made
fortunes by working there until the local population improved
their educational levels. The major portion of remittances to
Goa came from the Goans in the Gulf and these emigrants
invested heavily in housing and real estate.

There were 50,000 Goans in Kuwait, Dubai and Abu Dhabi in the
70s and a total of 150,000 Goans in the Gulf in 1987.ciii
Goan migration to the Middle East was never a permanent
phenomenon since the countries in that region do not grant
citizenship to foreign nationals; however, many have spent
decades there. Goans still prefer to move to those countries,
believing that a job there would be more rewarding than
employment in Goa.civ

7. Population in Goa

Demographic trends have had a major impact on the extent and
direction of migration and in Goa during the Portuguese
regime emigration and absence of replacement migration
resulted in a decline of population and of the economy.
Looking at the population censuses, we are in a position to
estimate the flow of migration.

There has been an appreciable decline in the rate of increase
of the population as shown by the census data for Goa. In
1910, the population of Goa increased by 16,444 (3.1 per
cent), in 1931 there was an increase of 48,010 (9 per cent)
in the population, while in 1940 there was an increase of
only 42,207 (7.6 per cent).

The reason for this fall in the 35 rate of increase of the
population must be sought in the higher rate of emigration
especially in the districts of Pernem and Bardez. The census
data shows that while the number of women increased by 13112,
the increase in the number of men was only 557. The
inevitable conclusion is that in many cases, the men
emigrated leaving the women behind. The economic conditions
in the country have made emigration a necessity, but although
the Christian population was smaller in number than the
Hindu, the number of Christian emigrants has been larger than
the number of Hindu emigrants. Statistics also indicate that
the population is shifting from the rural areas to urban
centres.cv

Year Total population
1850 362 744
1860 363 788
(Christians: 232 189; Hindus: 128 824; Muslims: 2775)
1870 384 429
1875 390 500
1876 388 712
1877 392 239
1900 475 513
(Males: 227.393; Females: 248.120)
1910 548 242
(According to the census of 1910 by Portuguese India
registered the absence of 57157 natives from Goa, Daman and
Diu).cvi
1914 700 000
1926 520 000
1931 500 000
1949 624 147.
1950 637 846
(Hindus: 488 741 ; Catholics: 334 021)
1960 600 000

The density of population per sq. km in Goa went up from 399
persons in 1960 to 982 in 2005. The last population census
held in March 2001 shows a population density of 13,47,668.
Goa has a low birth rate (death rate and infant mortality
too) but a high and constant influx of migrants. The State
has reached the level of replacement in population control in
the 1990's. The latest estimate of Total Fertility Rate was
just 1.77. The population of Goa in 2050 is likely to be
26.72 lakh, an estimate based on the 36 assumption that there
may be no significant change in natural growth and net
migration until then.cvii

* * *

i International migration or emigration is the process of
leaving a country or region with the objective of
settling temporarily or definitively in another country.
ii Frederick (FN) Noronha, Goanet-News, 24-08-2008.
iii The Anglo-Lusitano, "Emigration Committee's
Report", Bombay, November 25, 1933. p. 10.
iv Cunha,, J., 226.
v Ibid.
vi Mascarenhas-Keys, "Death Notices" , 84, 91-92.
vii Malheiros, 129-30.
viii Mascarenhas-Keyes, Souvenir: International Goan
Convention '88, 16-20.
ix Cunha, J., 231.
x Mendon?a.
xi Costa, Preface.
xii Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 12. In 1929,
literacy reached 15%. Cunha, J., 242.
xiii That system was abolished in 1915. Zachariah, 50. The
average term of an indentured contract was three
years in 1867. The system flourished in Tamil Nadu and
to some less extent in Kerala from the caste of
untouchables. Ibid., 53.
xiv The Anglo-Lusitano, "Goan Emigration, Scope in Angola
and Mozambique", February 2, 1952, p. 1.
xv Souvenir, International, 16-20.
xvi Cunha, J., 227.
xvii Ibid., 228.
xviii Ibid., 166.
xix Ibid., 19-20.
xx Ibid., 233.
xxi Bombay, 18.6.1929.
xxii Cunha, J., 199, 201.
xxiii Ibid., 26.
xxiv Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London. Ruth de Souza,
"Goans in New Zealand, Goa and Around the World".
xxv Pinto, 75.
xxvi Cunha, T., 39.
xxvii Gracias, 123-24.
xxviii Ibid., 126.
xxix Ibid.
xxx Souza, 133.
xxxi Costa. Goans became doctors, veterinaries,
professors, engineers, architects lawyers, magistrates,
occupied positions in the army and navy, air force and
government offices, in business, hotels, insurance companies;
they became musicians, artists, painters, sportspersons,
formed orchestras, etc.
xxxii Mascarenhas-Keyes, "Death Notices", 91-92.
xxxiii Pinto, Preface.
xxxiv Mascarenhas-Keys, Goans in London, 12.
xxxv Ibid.
xxxvi Souza, 150.
xxxvii Relat?rio, 2-3.
xxxviii The Anglo-Lusitano, "Os Emigrantes: Haja
Industrializa??o", Feb. 11, 1933, p. 4.
xxxix Ibid., "Emigrants' Problems", March 11, 1933, p.5.
xl Souza, 145.
xli Pinto, 19.
xlii Costa, 115.
xliii Pinto, 19.
xliv Relat?rio, 6.
xlv Souza, 147.
xlvi Ibid., 145.
xlvii Costa, 113.
xlviii Larsen, 267-68.
xlix The Anglo- Lusitano "Unemployment among Goans",
1933, p. 12.
l Ibid., "A Crise Economica de Goa", Oct 21, 1933, p. 4.
li The Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1878 made Goa more
dependent on British India.
lii Comiss?o.
liii Souza, 153.
liv Souvenir, International, 84.
lv Haward, 299.
lvi Souvenir, International, 84.
lvii Ezdani.
lviii Ibid.
lix Ibid.
lx Costa, 171-73.
lxi Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 12.
lxii Albuquerque, 39.
lxiii Ibid., 13.
lxiv Ibid.
lxv The Anglo-Lusitano, "The World that Goans Built", p.
2, July 12, 1952, p. 2.
lxvi Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 13.
lxvii Ibid.
lxviii Gracias, 125.
lxix The Anglo-Lusitano, "Emigrants' Problems", March
11, 1933, p. 5.
lxx In the seventeenth century the Portuguese government
leased in the region of Zambezi large tracts of
land for cultivation to the colonizers many of them Indians
for a period of three generations as a measure
to assist the Portuguese in asserting their sovereignty in
the colony. The system disappeared by the end of
the nineteenth century.
lxxi Costa, 171-73.
lxxii Relat?rio, 268.
lxxiii Malheiros, 128-29.
lxxiv Ibid., 163, 167.
lxxv Navhind Times, Panaji, June 5, 2008, Panaji,
"Eduardo's Mozambique visit aimed at boosting
relations", p. 5; Herald, Panaji, June 6, 2008, p. 4.
lxxvi Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 13.
lxxvii Souvenir, Fiftieth.
lxxviii The Anglo-Lusitano, Oct. 4, 1952, p. 6. Norman
Godinho who arrived in Uganda in 1906 rose to be
one of the biggest landlords in Kampala. He was the owner
of several buildings and played an important
part in the building of modern Kampala. Souvenir, Fiftieth.
lxxix Adolfo Mascarenhas "Goans in Tanzania Today" a
talk delivered at the Xavier Centre of Historical
Research, April 30, 2008.
lxxx Costa, 190.
lxxxi Herald, Panaji, June 6, 2008, p. 4.
lxxxii The millionaires Dr M F Albuquerque and Dr Eugene
Menezes.
lxxxiii Albuquerque, 19.
lxxxiv Balthazar D'Souza a Goan and M. F. Albuquerque
respectively.
lxxxv The Anglo-Lusitano, "The Goans in Zanzibar", Jan.
18, 1933, p. 6.
lxxxvi Ibid., "The Entebbe Goans Institute Governor's
Visit", Aug. 23, 2008, p.2.
lxxxvii Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 21.
lxxxviii Mascarenhas-Keyes, "Death Notices", 89.
lxxxix Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 18.
xc Ibid.
xci Costa, 85.
xcii Malheiros, 132.
xciii Ibid., 132.
xciv Ibid., 140-41.
xcv Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London.
xcvi The Goan Review, "US itself has abut 5000 Goan
families", March-April 1998, p. 50.
xcvii Zachariah, 64.
xcviii Wagle.
xcix Wagle.
c Souvenir: International. Reunion of Goans from across the
world.
ci Costa, 187.
cii Ibid., 188-89.
ciii Goa Today, 10.
civ The Navhind Times, "Money factor still luring Goans
Abroad" by Minoo Fernandes, Panaji, January 25,
2008, p. 1.
cv The Anglo-Lusitano, "Census of Portuguese India",
March 22, 1951, p. 1.
cvi Metahistory, 239. 63.765 natives of Portuguese India
were registered in British India.
cviiGoa's Friday Balcao, 14th July,

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Ilhas de Goa -- 1904 , , Nova Goa, Imprensa Nacional , 1904.
Comiss?o Administrativa do Fundo dos Emigrantes, Nova Goa,
Imprensa Nacional, 1936.
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Cunha, J. J. da, Nossa Terra. Estudos Econ?micos,
Financeiros, Sociais e Internacionais,
Vol. 1, Bastor?, Tipografia Rangel, 1939.
Cunha, T. B., Goa's Freedom Struggle, Bombay, New Age
Printing Press, 1961.
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Migration and its Impact, 1850-
1950", in Metahistory, Charles Borges and Pearson,
(Coord.), Lisbon, Nova
Vega, 2007, pp. 235-45.
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1556, 2007.
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offprint of Boletim da Sociedade
de Geografia de Lisboa, 1938, nos. 7 & 8.
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1988.
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in Goa, Panjim, Surya
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82-98.
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Ultramarinos, Lisboa, 1956.
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dos emigrantes Indo-Portugueses na
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do Estado da India, Nova Goa, Imprensa Nacional, 1931.
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www.multiculturalcanada.ca/ecp/content/goans.html.
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Trivandrum, December 2007

THIS IS AN excerpt from the Goa Migration Study, 2008. Goanet Reader
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EMIGRATION FROM GOA: A HISTORICAL VIEW
Excerpt from the Goa Migration Study 2008 (Goa NRI Commission)

1. Introduction

Goans have been migrating before, during and after the
colonial times. From the beginning of the sixteenth century,
Goa became the earliest territory in the non-western world
that was exposed to Western culture and values. The influence
of the new Western culture, or rather, that fusion of Eastern
and Western cultures that the Goans grew up with, encouraged
traditions of knowledge, honesty and hard work and opened to
the doors to the world to Goans, providing them with a
distinct advantage wherever they went.

The influence of Christianity, Western education and cultural
syncretism endowed the Goans with an inclusive identity and
facilitated their migration and adaptation to new and
different cultural contexts. Goans have played a very
significant part, although not often fully recognised, in the
creation of modern Indian culture in different areas of life
and art.

The Goan identity has been acknowledged as being
unique and has been appreciated universally. The opinion poll
held in Goa in 1967, during which Goans decided against
merging Goa with any other neighbouring state, speaks volumes
for the determination of the Goans in preserving their unique
cultural identity and autonomy. Their cultural identity
earned national recognition when on May 31, 1987 Goa became
the 25th state in the Republic of India.

Goans living in different parts of the world have
carved out a world of their own on the solid
foundation of their ancient culture. A significant
portion of Goa's prosperity is accounted for by
international migration.i Remittances have enabled
Goans to step up their investment in education,
real estate and housing considerably. Besides
accounting for large remittances, the migrants have
also served as unofficial ambassadors of an
inclusive and unique culture. It is obvious that
migration studies help to understand the identity
of the emigrants who, in many instances, never
returned to their country of 11 origin. The more
connected they feel to their original identity,
culture and heritage, the greater will be their
contribution to their country of origin in terms of
remittances or as unofficial ambassadors.

The long history of Goan emigrants has been captured in the
very emotional Goan song in Konkani 'Adeus Korchea Vellar'
(The Time to Say Goodbye). It conveys the sentiments of a
people who have known the price of separation from a land
that is so full of scenic beauty, so peaceful yet lacking in
employment opportunities.ii Goa was a Portuguese enclave for
over four centuries; it had clearly demarcated political
boundaries.

Naturally, migration to destinations outside Goa involved
crossing national boundaries. Obviously, any out-migration
to India before Goa was integrated into the Indian Union was
perceived as international.

Christian (Catholic) Goans had a higher geographical and
occupational mobility because of their easy adaptability to
any environment, their cultural openness and hospitable
nature. Education was a strong factor influencing emigration.

Modern life has created serious problems for the migrants as
well as concerns for the host countries and countries of
origin. Violation of human rights of migrant workers and of
their families have led governments to initiate campaigns for
informing citizens about their rights and obligations and
preparing emigrants to solve their severe problems at the
place of destination.
From the beginning of the twentieth century, nations have
been paying greater attention to the grievance and
difficulties of the emigrants. Concerns, issues and problems
of the emigrants have been debated at the national level
since suitable solutions often eluded them, except for a
perception that solutions needed to be global and
sustainable.

Several nations have embarked on scientific studies of
migration movements and its dynamics in recent decades using
new data from surveys and they claim to have greater control
over migration for enacting legislation. Attempts are being
made in initiating policies and schemes for migrants' welfare
in the sending countries and also for involving the migrants
in the development of the origin countries. In spite of the
Goan emigration spanning centuries and becoming worldwide,
the phenomenon has not yet been examined in depth. The task
is not going to be easy due to lack of reliable records. 12

The Portuguese administration of Goa was not in the
practice of registering the number of Goan
emigrants. In the years of the Great Depression,
the Portuguese Law Commission in Goa had appointed
a committee of inquiry to study the social and
economic conditions of Goans in British India and
to recommend the means for securing the wellbeing
of the migrants.

This committee received support from the civil and
ecclesiastical authorities and from the entire Goan community
which offered financial and medical assistance. As a result a
Goan Emigration Fund was created.iii The committee organised
relief work, including a subsistence allowance to the poor
Goans, and encouraged the emigrants to initiate projects back
home.

Critical issues affecting Goa were widely discussed. This
period also witnessed the beginning of a serious study of
Goan migration. Perceptions about Goan emigration abound as
do theories to explain the process of emigration itself.
Emigrants constitute a significant economic force both in the
host country and in the country of origin. Remittances by
migrants have done more to alleviate poverty rather than help
develop other sectors.

In the past, the survival and development of certain
industries critically depended on emigrants. Besides sending
regular remittances, every emigrant who returned to Goa even
for a short vacation contributed to its economy. In general,
migration brought about visible improvement to the social and
economic life of the Goans.

Traditional explanations viewed Goan emigration as
an involuntary act or as a desperate act of escape
from a hapless situation by those who looked down
upon Goa as primitive and a place where one could
do nothing do raise one's personal status. High
population density, which exerted pressure on
employment, was a major cause for migration.

There was a perception that the most able-bodied Goans
(educated or uneducated, skilled or unskilled) were forced to
regard migration as the natural course and took advantage of
it at the earliest available opportunity, except perhaps the
Hindus. Additionally, the nationalistic discourse began to
hammer a feeling into the emigrant Goans as being
'denationalised' Goans with little love for Goa.iv Goans felt
that a great number of Portuguese laws which were
particularly harsh forced the natives to emigrate.v To the
Portuguese Government in Goa, Goan emigration was inevitable
and large-scale 13 migration to British India was a necessary
economic evil, although many of them were happy to return if
job opportunities could be found in Goa.

Besides work in the moribund agricultural sector, Goa could
offer little else.

Recent studies recognise that migration involves more than
passive reactions to unfavourable economic opportunities at
home and it does not necessarily lead to a clean snapping of
ties with the country of origin. People take deliberate
measures to improve their lifestyle and that of their
relatives in other geographical locations with more
favourable labour markets. In fact, this constitutes a
determinant for the large-scale and global dispersion or
international migration of Christian Goans in recent
decades.vi

Wherever Goans have settled down, they contributed
very significantly. A major wave of migration from
Goa began in 1830, initially towards British India,
made possible by improvements of transport, the
commercial decadence of Goa and the growing demand
for labour in cities like Bombay and Pune.

The fact that the Goans were the only Westernized and
academically qualified persons that the British could count
upon, explains their recruitment to several sectors like
education, administration and health. The presence of Goans
in large numbers outside Goa can be judged by the fact that
their remittances were essential for balancing the commercial
transactions in Goa.vii

Goa, although a small place, has a vast international
diaspora. Goans have travelled during the colonial times to
almost all corners of the world, so much so that it would be
difficult to name a country without a Goan community.viii

Unfortunately, we lack reliable statistics on Goan emigration
which makes the numbers rather speculative. However, we might
venture to assert that the widening adverse balance of trade
served as an impetus to emigration. The majority of emigrants
did not have the necessary background and the Portuguese
Government did almost nothing for the prospective migrants.ix

Emigration, whether to places like Myanmar decades ago or to
the Gulf in more recent times, has come largely from the
Christian population in the State due to a range of
historical factors. Hindu Goans also migrated but they formed
a small minority in comparison with Christians. Assessment of
the positive and negative consequences of migration can
provide new insights into its impact on society as a whole
and on particular 14 categories (e.g,, migrant households).
In this chapter we attempt to make such an assessment.

2. The State of Goa (political unit)

A brief history of Goa will serve as an introduction to the
determinants and consequences of Goan migration to India and
overseas and to issues relating to migration such as
identity, adaptability and emergence of new cultural
patterns.

Goa, on the southwest coast of India, has an area of 3,701
square kilometres. The Bhojas, Mauryas, Chalukyas,
Rashtrakutas, Shilaharas, Kadambas, Yadavas, Bahmanis, the
Vijayanagar and the Bijapur dynasties ruled Goa at different
times. During ancient times, Goa was famous for its seaport
and international commercial traffic.

It is no wonder that the Goans could have had commercial
connections with the ancient cultures of Mesopotamia and the
Indus Valley. Goans traded with East Africa in the tenth
century which shows that they were truly seafarers and
intercontinental movers. Goa's global trade and traffic
increased manifold when the Portuguese captured it from the
Muslim rulers in 1510.

The city of Goa evolved into a major port of call
and as a business station between Europe and the
East. In 1530, it became the capital of the
Portuguese Eastern Empire. A unique culture, a
fusion of Eastern and Western values, Goa began to
be increasingly admired for its Indo-Portuguese
cultural and architectural characteristics from the
nineteenth century.x It remained a Portuguese
colony for about 450 years until 1961.

Many Portuguese seamen died in the tropics and so the
Christian Goans became part of the Portuguese seafaring
tradition. They sailed on Portuguese ships throughout the
Indian Ocean to the Far East, Africa, Brazil and Europe. We
come across Goans in Macao since the seventeenth century. In
1784, 150 Goan soldiers arrived in Macao to defend it.
Hindus have been somewhat reluctant to sail due to the old
religious and cultural prejudices or to the attachment to the
joint family with its traditional values. There is little
evidence to suggest that Hindu Goans migrated outside the
Indian subcontinent. 15

The intense missionary activity led the local Hindu
population to convert to Christianity. Many Hindus resisted
conversion and migrated to the neighbouring regions of
Karwar, Belgaum and Mangalore during the period of the mass
conversion movement initiated in the 1540s. Migration was
preferred to abandoning traditional religious and cultural
practices; heavy taxation was another reason for leaving the
land.xi

Reputed for its long white sandy beaches, and houses and
churches with unique architectural traits, Goa has become the
most attractive tourist destination along India's western
coast. The state of Goa has more than 1.3 million people
which include Hindus (65%), Christians (34%), and a small
community of Muslims. Before 1961, Goa had a population
comprising 42 percent of Christians, the majority living in
'Old Conquests'. At this point, we need to clarify two
concepts: the 'Old Conquests' of Goa (territories conquered
by the Portuguese from 1510 to 1543) and the 'New Conquests'
(territories contiguous to the Old Conquests which were
annexed and added to Goa in the last quarter of the
eighteenth century).

The New Conquests cover three fourths of the area
of present state of Goa and have remained
predominantly Hindu. Obviously, the Portuguese
influence on the Old Conquests has been significant
as is evident from a large Christian population.
The majority of emigrants have originated from
here. Obviously most studies on emigration have
been linked the Old Conquests (Bardez, Salcete,
Tiswadi and Mormugao).

Conversion to Christianity, Western education and Portuguese
law brought radical changes in lifestyle, including dietary
habits, attire and world view. Education, through the medium
of Portuguese language, was reserved to Christians although
not exclusively until the 1750s when more egalitarian social
reforms were introduced in Portugal and Goa.

In 1910, Portuguese law mandated a secular education and from
then on, many Hindus availed of education in the Portuguese
medium. The Portuguese established one or two schools in
every village and in the middle of the nineteenth century
they founded in the capital city of Panaji, a Lyceum where
all sciences were taught, a Medical College and a Law
College. Many intellectuals, doctors and lawyers studied
there and subsequently emigrated to other Portuguese colonies
like Mozambique, Angola and Macao.xii 16

Although the Old Conquests were densely populated,
the Portuguese did not do much to set up new
industries, and the existing ones proved inadequate
to generate sufficient employment. Consequently,
nearly one tenth of the population was forced to
migrate.

In 1930s, 70,000 Goans had migrated, out of which 55,000
migrated to British India. In 1960, on the eve of Goa's
political liberation there were 100,000 emigrants in a
population of 600,000. Surprisingly, in spite of the lack of
employment opportunities misery never prevailed in Goa. Goa
has no history of indentured labour or a system of
quasi-slavery of agricultural work force created by the
British -- as a consequence of the abolition of slavery in
the British Empire in 1834 and the shortage of workers -- for
their sugarcane and tea plantations, in other colonies.xiii 17

a. Society and Economy

The major traditional occupation was subsistence farming of
land owned jointly by the gauncars (native inhabitants) and
managed by the village communities, but soon after the
arrival of the Portuguese a system of private property was
introduced. Despite being an agrarian society only a small
percentage of the population, about 10% derived direct
sustenance from the land; scarcely 2% of the population owned
landed property, which yielded a return sufficient for the
maintenance of the owner and of his family.xiv

The agriculturists who cultivated their rice fields earned
just enough to keep themselves and their families alive. At
least 40% of the adult male population had to migrate in
order to earn a living. The population census of 1881 shows
that the number of cultivators of 'toddy' and makers of
'jaggery' (coconut confection) in the entire 'Estado da
India' (Goa, Daman and Diu) was 7,512, but from that year to
1910 the number came down to almost 4,000 (i.e., 3,512
persons had emigrated).

In contrast to the deteriorating economic conditions,
declining agricultural output and rise of population, various
international developments taking place around the middle of
the nineteenth century raised fresh hopes of employment
opportunities. The introduction of steamships reduced
distances. The military and civilian settlements of the
British in India, Burma and Middle East created a huge demand
for personnel who could meet European tastes in food, drink,
music, dress and medicine.

Christians, who had been distressed by the adverse
local conditions, took advantage of these
opportunities, unlike Hindus and Muslims, and they
worked as cooks, stewards, butlers, musicians,
tailors, ayahs (servant maids) and bakers; a few
worked as pharmacists, clerks, doctors and nurses.
The honesty and hard work demonstrated by the Goans
stood them in good stead and the British officials
and commercial companies began preferring them as
their employees.

Early migrants rarely brought their families along with them
and many of those who came to British India stayed at the
famed residential clubs for workers ('Coors') founded by
Goans as a support structure for migrants.xv From the 1920s
the Portuguese government began levying an 'emigration tax'
on every Goan intending to leave Goa in search of
employment.xvi In 1933, an 'emigration tax' of 18 10-12
'tangas' (Rs 1.00) per person brought in an annual revenue of
Rs 60,000.00.

There was an agitation against that tax which was,
interestingly, also imposed on Goan emigrants returning home.
Moreover the Portuguese government introduced a 'military
tax' to be paid before a Goan's departure from Goa to seek
employment elsewhere despite the evident fact that the
emigrant contributed substantially to the Goan economy
through remittances.

Emigrants had to pay a tax on their property in Goa
which forced many to invest outside Goa. Around
this time when entire families emigrated
permanently they preferred to sell their ancestral
properties in Goa.

Thus important Goan settlements appeared in Santa Cruz in
Mumbai, Calcutta, Karachi, Aden, etc.xvii In the 1920s,
emigration to British India was on the increase but the
thenworld economic crisis forced many to return to Goa.xviii

In 1928, the emigrants had sent home remittances to the tune
of Rs. 134.25 lakh. The remittances enabled the emigrants'
families to maintain a high standard of living as they could
pay for luxury goods, like silk clothing and fine cotton,
wines, liqueur, beer and cigars.xix Goa owed much to the
emigrants whose remittances were responsible for covering the
state's annual deficit of Rs. 138 lakh.xx According to
official statistics on import/export as reported in the
newspaper Times of India,xxi exports for 1928 was Rs. 46 lakh
and imports, Rs.184 lakh, or four times more than exports.xxii

As living in Goa became more expensive, emigration to British
India increased. The Portuguese government encouraged
migration and the British welcomed it.xxiii With the
departure of the British from India in 1947, Goans who were
employed in considerable numbers in British firms lost their
jobs which resulted in their return home in 1948-59.xxiv

Further, the prohibition of liquor led to the closing down of
many hotels and restaurants owned or staffed by Goans.
Suitable employment was scarce and even the educated Goans
experienced great difficult in securing jobs in the
Government. Earlier, British East Africa had attracted a
large number of Goans, but the immigration laws in course of
time became severe and work permits were not easily
available.

Angola and Mozambique opened their labour markets to skilled
and unskilled emigrants. Nevertheless, many continued to
migrate to Belgaum, Pune and Bombay to educate their children
in English medium schools and colleges. 19

With a stagnant Goan economy, Goans looked outwards for work.
Moreover, most of the communities like the Gawdas and Kunbis
(original inhabitants of Goa) as well as several other
communities of agriculturists gave up their farming
activities and shifted to construction-related sectors as
agriculture could not offer enough returns. Moreover, some
held work on the farm in low esteem.

The constant increase in tax on the coconut produce
caused the emigration of many tillers to British
India. The discovery of iron ore and manganese
resources in Goa in the 1950s provided some relief,
but even that did not prevent considerable
emigration. After the liberation of Goa in 1961
further emigration occurred. The tourism industry
in the 70s provided a huge relief.

The mining industry and the accompanying alluring incentives
created acute problems like scarcity of labour for
agriculture. The wages which labourers were offered in the
mines were twice as much as the wages paid for working in the
fields or palm groves in the villages. The labourer could not
resist the offer. The mass departure of labour to the mining
sector was unstoppable, creating fears of shortage of labour
for the rice fields and palm trees. The government persuaded
the mine owners to use machinery in order to minimise damage
to agriculture.

Emigration was held responsible for the dwindling of
agriculture and industry, so also for many other misfortunes
of Goa.xxv Emigration slowed down the economic progress of
Goa. But restrictions on exports due to tariff barriers
reduced the country's productivity. Emigration rose due to
the scarcity of work, lack of industries and the
disproportion between wages and cost of living caused by the
government's policy of high customs duties.xxvi Sadly, Goan
emigrants contributed to foreign lands at the cost of their own.

b. Female Migration

Women rarely accompanied their migrant husbands. However, the
migration of Goan women to the neighbouring states is not a
recent phenomenon though there are no statistics to show the
flow of female migration. Female migration to British India
and Africa began in the first half of the twentieth century,
and to other parts of world from 1961. Some migrated due to
the high cost of living in Goa and a few others, to further
their studies. Goan women in Africa and India took up jobs of
teachers, clerks, secretaries, typists, nurses, and worked in
factories owned by the rich British and Parsi 20 families.

Their standard of living was much higher than that
of most of their counterparts in Goa.xxvii The fact
that they were absorbed in such jobs reflects the
greater independence and skills of Goan women.

Some women migrated alone, others to marry Goans, these often
settled in British India or Bombay. These women from the
poorer classes, were unskilled workers between the ages of
18-45 years from Christian and Hindu backgrounds. Women from
middle and upper classes seldom migrated except for
furthering their studies or accompanying with their husbands.
Lack of institutions of higher education in Goa led some
parents to send their children for higher studies to Bombay,
Bangalore, Pune, Belgaum and Dharwar.xxviii

Migration also had some ill effects. As reported in 1923, 510
Goan women were working as prostitutes and for this reason
the Church in Goa began discouraging migration of women.xxix
The majority of such women belonged the tradition of temple
dancing girls. Emigration might have led to some moral
degradation but the conduct of the emigrants, devotion to
work, employer and family was commendable and their services
were greatly sought after.xxx

c. Trends in Goan Emigration

Large-scale international migration from Goa took place only
during the past 170 years. Migration trends according to
destination or changing patterns could be illustrated in
chronological order as follows: British India and Asia: From
1850s, with the establishment of the railway lines and the
steam ships, the Goans, especially the Christians equipped
with English education, went mainly to Bombay and also to
Pune, Dharwar and Calcutta, and many, by their own efforts
and competence, occupied important positions.xxxi

Some chose to travel to Karachi, others to the east across
mainland India to ports like Madras and Calcutta and thence
From the early decades of the twentieth century, Goans began
settling down mainly in Portuguese and British colonies in
East Africa. Europe and America: Considerable emigration
took place to these regions after World War II. 21

Gulf Countries: This region became the main destination for
Goans with the discovery of oil in 1970s.

Destinations were determined mostly by economic factors such
as opportunities for employment or labour shortage.
Immigration laws were another major determinant. But the
choice of destination could also be influenced by contacts --
relatives and friends or acquaintances who had migrated
earlier. Clubs and associations sprang up to provide cheap
accommodation to the newly arrived migrants. Goans generally
migrated on the strengths of personal contacts, with no
government sponsorship or church support.xxxii

3. British India - Asia

Goans began working for the British when the naval fleet of
the British Indian government was stationed in Goa between
1797 and 1813, in anticipation of an attack by the French
(which never took place) on the British Indian Possessions.
The British naval personnel recruited Christian Goans to work
for them because of the latter's western penchant which
pleased the British. When the British fleet withdrew from Goa
and established stations in Bombay, Karachi, Madras, Calcutta
and Singapore their Goan staff followed them.xxxiii

Migration of Goans to British India continued throughout the
early part of the nineteenth century, but it was since the
middle of the century that a significant flow of migration
took place. Immediately after the Indian Mutiny in 1857, the
British reasserted their power with the proclamation by Queen
Victoria of the takeover of the Indian affairs by the British
Crown. The British then began setting up a vast railway
network for the quick movement of troops.

The Goans poured out of Goa and got jobs on the
Great Indian Peninsula Railway and the Bombay
Baroda and Central Indian Railway. The construction
of the Western Indian Portuguese railways in the
late nineteenth century provided additional impetus
for the Goans from the Old Conquests to migrate,
and subsequently they settled in large numbers in
Hubli, Belgaum, Mumbai and Pune.xxxiv

The Portuguese government opened English medium schools in
Bardez and Salcete to prepare the Goan emigrants, so much so
that there were more such schools than 22 Portuguese ones.
Moreover parents sent their wards to the neighbouring cities
of Pune, Belgaum, Mumbai and Bangalore since life there was
cheaper and English education was more advantageous.xxxv

In 1911, the census of British India registered
636,75 individuals born in Portuguese India.
Excess of population in Goa, poor management of
agriculture and absence of industries produced
waves of migration.

In 1919, Goans settled in Bengal (1,000) and Calcutta
(800).xxxvi In 1931, Goa had a population of 500,000. Around
55,000 to 60,000 people, mostly from the Old Conquests,
hacked a living in British India. Spread throughout India
they formed prominent groups in Bombay (45000), Karachi
(3,500), Calcutta (1,000), Rangoon (800) and of these only
7,500 were Hindus and Muslims.xxxvii In the same year,
emigration increased since the emigrants moved with their
families with the intention of settling down especially in
Bombay and Karachi. In 1933 there were 100,000 Goan
emigrants of whom 60,000 lived in British India.xxxviii

British India ran into a serious recession in the 1930s. The
Goan Emigrants Fund Committee, organised to deal with the
crisis, through its relief measure, trained many poor,
especially women in sewing, nursing, care of infants, etc.,
and helped them to secure employment on reasonably good
wages.

Lack of training resulted in their being exploited by
unscrupulous employers. The number of educated among the
local population had increased, but they did not mind doing
any job regardless of the wage. On the other hand, the Goans
showed lack of adaptability and initiative; they waited for
clerical work and showed little interest in any other work.

Seamen, during their enforced leisure, would not
accept work in the agricultural sector. Domestic
workers were averse to working as salesperson,
likewise gardening or rearing of poultry was
abhorred.xxxix Unemployment was widespread among
the Goans in British India in 1936 and one of the
measures proposed by the Goan Emigrants Fund
Committee was to settle them on land left
uncultivated in the New Conquests due to shortage
of labour.

Despite facilities and subsidies from the government, lack of
water and failed monsoons discouraged the agriculturist
settlers. A great number had returned to Goa; others had
opted for the Gulf countries. 23

In 1938, Bombay counted 45,000 Goans, Karachi 4,500, Pune
2,500, Calcutta 1,200, Rangoon 800 and Nagpur 500, besides
smaller numbers in other centres. Of these only 8,000 were
Hindus and Muslims and the rest were Christians.xl World War
II opened up opportunities for labour and in 1947, there were
around 100,000 Goans in British India,xli of whom 10,000 were
illiterate and working in low-paid jobs as cooks and as ayahs.

Ten years later, in 1956, the number of Goans in India and
Karachi continued to be 100,000.xlii Wherever they had been,
they founded institutes, reading rooms, cultural centres,
leisure venues for social conviviality, and established
charitable associations, all of which revealed their sense of
solidarity. Celebrations of feasts of saints and patrons of
their native villages carried out with fervour and pomp speak
volumes for their attachment to tradition. Around 1958, food
grains in Goa became more expensive than in British India
compelling many Goans to migrate increasingly.xliii The Goan
migrants lived on modest salaries; the majority lived on a
monthly salary of less than Rs 100.00 in 1938.xliv

a. Bombay

Bombay belonged to the Portuguese until 1661 when it was
given to Britain as part of the dowry of Queen Catherine who
was married to Charles II of England. Since then the British
helped Goans to migrate and some families settled in
Mazagaon.

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, when Bombay was
growing as a business centre the number of Goans was already
high and in the 1950s, Bombay counted 8,000 Goans who
occupied positions in business, liberal professions and
administration, and later female emigrants of lower strata
joined the domestic labour force.xlv

Emigration increased with the economic development of the
city. During World War I, there were over 12,000 Goan seamen
in Bombay and after the war around 7,500. Goan emigration
must have increased 30 to 50 per cent between 1915-1935.xlvi
Around 12,000 Goans worked in public services in Bombay in
1956.xlvii

Hindu Brahmins, culturally and educationally more
advanced, migrated to Bombay during the early
1900s; some established jewellery shops and did
well as a community. Christians from lower
communities migrated and opened tailoring shops;
the more 24 resourceful ones opened restaurants and
guest-houses.xlviii A number of Goans improved
their lot, while many others had to struggle to
survive.

The Goan Emigrants Fund Committee, an official organisation
established in Bombay, reported serious unemployment, poorly
paid jobs and extreme poverty among the Goans. Unemployment
worsened with the arrival of labourers from other parts of
India in the 1930s who were willing to work for any wage,
while the Goans were not willing to leave Bombay or forgo the
amenities of urban life to settle in Goan villages.

Although the Goa government announced easy loans and enacted
legislation on land tenure, the Goans did not seem to be
interested in availing of these facilities.xlix They depended
absolutely on British India. Reduced exports from Goa on the
one hand and expensive imports on the other combined with the
return of emigrants to Goa who remained idle, deepened the
economic crisis.l

The employment situation in Bombay was of serious concern to
the Portuguese government in Goa, since Goa was totally
dependent on economic conditions in British India.li The
Portuguese government did not spare any effort to find
different solutions and framed policies to resolve the issue.
To alleviate the poverty of Goans in Bombay, the Goa
government sought to repatriate those with no possibility of
finding employment in Bombay. The government motivated the
expatriates to take up land for cultivation in the Sanguem
region of Goa with financial assistance from the
government.lii

The Goan community in Bombay was one of the most active in
several fields including the establishment of schools. The
city of Bombay became a place for exile and political
activity for the Goans in the second half of the nineteenth
century, when Goa experienced political uncertainty as a
result of the establishment of constitutional monarchy in
Portugal in 1820.liii

Bombay, a place to migrate to, was since the 1950s, replaced
by Bangalore, the Gulf countries, United Kingdom, United
States, Canada and Australia, these being the most popular
destinations in recent years. Bombay had become a stepping
stone for migration to different parts of the world. 25

b. Pakistan

The Goans, mostly Christians, arrived in Karachi in 1842 when
the British occupied that small fishing village.liv Despite
the social constraints imposed on them, this cohesive
minority community achieved quick success. Goans served as
clerks in government offices, in the armed forces and some
opened businesses.lv

Already a sizable number were residing in the city
in 1869 and later, from 1913, the 'coors' assisted
the working class to migrate to Pakistan. By the
turn of the century, several Goans had established
business houses of which a few became public
companies with Goans as their chief executives.
Many streets in Karachi were named after eminent Goans.

In 1947, Partition created new opportunities for qualified
Goans to occupy high positions in government services due to
the departure of the British and the Hindus.lvi However, the
formation of Pakistan in 1947, created uncertainty among the
Goans and with Goa's liberation in 1961 and its political
incorporation into the Indian Union, the Goans in Pakistan
had the links with their homeland completely severed. Many
Goans, mostly young, left Karachi. There were more than 5,000
Goans in Karachi in 1958.

c. Burma

When the Portuguese first went to Burma in the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries, they must have taken with them some
Goans but they did not settle there permanently. From the end
of the nineteenth century, Christian Goans began to migrate
to Burma or Myanmar as it is known today, but it was from the
early 20th century, that many settled in East Rangoon. Burma
always had an isolationist policy and never welcomed
foreigners till the 1980s.lvii

In 1886, King Thibaw was dethroned by the British and the
whole of Burma came under British rule. Many Goans were
transferred from the Indian Posts and Telegraphs Department
and Indian Railways (mostly from Karachi and Calcutta) to
Burma. In addition, many Goans with musical talent went to
Burma in the 1920s to provide their services to the silent
movie industry and to the flourishing cinema houses in 1930s.
Many of them stayed on as music teachers, dealers in musical
instruments and formed bands for clubs and hotels. We could
assume the existence of migratory waves of Goans to Burma 26
in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.lviii
There were 800 Goans in Rangoon in 1931.

When World War II broke out in Burma, there were no more than
a hundred Goan families living there. When the Japanese
planes bombed the city of Rangoon (Yangon) in 1941, Goan
emigrants were caught in the real life drama for survival.

Many trekked through jungles and mountains and streams amidst
great dangers and hardships back to India where they settled
in different places. Some Goans decided to stay on in Burma
during the Japanese occupation and a few others opted for
Burmese nationality. The Japanese invasion was the end of the
Goan emigration.lix

Burma became an independent republic in 1948.

4. East Africa

From as early as the sixteenth century, Goans had
helped the Portuguese to penetrate the inhospitable
territories in Africa.lx In the eighteenth century,
Goan traders settled in Mozambique and other parts
of East Africa. They participated in the trade in
ivory and gold between Goa and East Africa and
established large import-export businesses.lxi In
1921, the East Africa statistics of business listed
426 Goans.lxii

The second quarter of the nineteenth century witnessed
increasing interest and intense competition among the
European nations for laying exclusive claims on African
territories. This rivalry culminated in the Berlin Conference
(1884-85) and the British Ultimatum to Portugal (1890) meant
to regulate European colonisation and trade in Africa.
Finally, however, the African continent was divided among the
European competitors. The years following the 'Scramble of
Africa' saw a large number of emigrants assisting the
colonial nations in consolidating their claims.

Between 1890 and 1895, when the British government took over
the administration in East Africa, the policy of employing
Goans in the colonial civil service and telegraph offices was
already established. By 1890, there were 160 Goans in
Mombassa forming the backbone of the port administration.
When the British colonial government began constructing the
Uganda Railways in 1896, Goans were employed as stewards and
administrative staff for the East African Railways &
Harbours. There was however no indentured labour from
Goa.lxiii

At the turn of the century, emigration increased with the 27
expansion of British and Portuguese colonialism in Africa.
Knowledge of Portuguese and English helped the Goans.

The British India Steam Navigation Company (BISNC) had
employed Goans as clerks in their offices around the Indian
Ocean as early as 1874 and the company began relying on Goan
staff to run its offices in East Africa.lxiv On the whole,
Goans made tremendous progress in cities like Louren?o
Marques (today Maputo), Beira, Dar es Salaam, Nairobi,
Kampala, Mombassa and Zanzibar.lxv

Emigration reached a peak in the years between the World Wars
(1918 to 1939), when many Goan seamen who had served in the
Merchant or Royal Navy during the First World War moved to
East Africa with their families.lxvi With the independence of
India, many Goans employed in civil services and the army in
British India were offered jobs in East Africa by the British
government and a large number migrated between 1948 and 1959
and settled there for years until the independence of those
countries.lxvii

Goans contributed to pioneering work in the fields
of medicine, education, etc.lxviii Acute
unemployment hit Africa and Persia in 1930s forcing
hundreds of Goans to return home. The shipping
companies, always appreciative of the Goans'
performance and loyalty, began retrenching their
staff. It is pointed out that over 2000 unemployed
Goans in British East Africa had no financial
resources to return to India.lxix

a. Mozambique

Migration to Mozambique, a Portuguese colony, began in the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries but in the following
century we hear of Goan administrators, missionaries and
colonisers in control of 'Prazos da Zamb?zia'.lxx

The Portuguese colonies especially Mozambique recruited Goans
who were literate in Portuguese to work as clerks and
administrators. Some Goans became very rich and contributed
to the pacification or colonisation of local tribal chiefs
and population with their own local army in the region of
Zambezi. Others occupied high posts in the
administration.lxxi

The district administrator in Goa promoted emigration to
Mozambique. In 1897, the government appointed an Emigration
Commission (Comiss?o Protectora da Emigra??o) Mozambique
for the purpose of gathering all information regarding the
places where 28 the Goans could find employment as well as
information on salaries, and the government assisted those
who wished to migrate.lxxii Goans migrated to three major
cities: Maputo, Beira and Nampula. Maputo and Beira, regions
with a significant community, became favourite destinations
since the Goans possessed skills associated with public
institutions, administration and white collar jobs such as
doctors, judges, teachers, etc.lxxiii Older Goans worked in
administrative positions whereas the younger generation with
better education opted for liberal professions.lxxiv It is
observed that most Goans preferred white-collar jobs rather
than manual ones.

At present, around a thousand families of Goan origin reside
in Mozambique and many of the older ones would like to return
and settle down in Goa. Some of these Goans have attained
high positions in professional fields whereas others have not
done so well.lxxv Mozambique gained its independence in 1975
after twelve years of armed struggle.

b. Uganda

When Uganda was declared a British protectorate in 1894 there
were already Goans there.lxxvi Some had come during the
construction of the Uganda Railway and stayed on as civil
servants under the British administration. The law-abiding
character of the Goan community stood out remarkably.lxxvii
More Goans arrived in Kampala, Uganda in 1900' and
distinguished themselves in the field of sports and helped in
the development of sporting activities and musical
entertainment through the Goan Institute of Kampala.

In 1960, events in Uganda gave cause for concern, forcing
some to migrate to the West and others to return to Goa.
Goans, being industrious and peace-loving, played an
important role in the civil society and economic development
of Uganda. In East Africa, they earned the commendation of
high officers of the British Empire and lofty appreciation
from various governors.lxxviii Uganda became independent in
1960.

c. Tanganyika

Estimates show that 7,000 Goans resided in Tanganyika before
its independence in 1961, of which about 15 per cent still
remain in Tanzania, mostly in Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar, Arusha
and Mwanza. The majority returned to India, many from
Zanzibar moved to the 29 Gulf but a significant number went
to Canada, the United Kingdom, the USA, Australia, New
Zealand, Sweden and elsewhere. Even after the independence of
Tanganyika, many Goans continued to work in foreign
commercial banks until they were nationalised by President
Julius Nyerere. With the banks nationalised and the civil
service not really attractive, more and more Goans moved into
the private sector.

Goans in Dar es Salaam (and other towns) owned bars,
bakeries, clothing and tailoring shops, musical instrument
stores, butcheries, 'soda factories', etc., and contributed
considerably to photography business.lxxix The two former
British colonies, the United Republic of Tanganyika and
Zanzibar decided to unite in 1964, and soon after, in the
same year, it was renamed as the United Republic of Tanzania.

d. Kenya

The recorded history of Goans in Kenya goes as far back as
1865 with the arrival and establishment of Goan business
houses in Mombassa, but at the turn of the century the influx
increased. They arrived as sailors, cooks, tailors, railway
employees and clerks. Their preference for white-collar jobs
led them to found institutes such as the Goan Institute,
Mombassa in 1901, the Goan Institute, Nairobi in 1905 and the
Goan Gymkhana in 1936. Magnificent churches appeared wherever
there was a small community of Goans in towns and cities of
Kenya. It is said that there were 30,000 Goans in Kenya,
largely in Nairobi, in 1956.lxxx Presently there are only
about 500 Goan families in Kenya.lxxxi The British granted
political independence to Kenya in 1963.

e. Zanzibar

There have been Goans in Zanzibar since the middle of the
nineteenth century, but the first group of Goan entrepreneurs
landed there at the turn of the twentieth century.

In olden days, Zanzibar was regarded as the principal
destination of Goans in East Africa. Goans in Zanzibar were
among the most prosperous people and held in high esteem by
the Europeans, Indians and natives for their peaceful living.
Some Goans enjoyed great popularity in the Zanzibar
Island.lxxxii Goans numbered 59 in 1873lxxxiii and roughly
869 in 1933, and they enjoyed the patronage and favours of
the Sultan of Zanzibar; many of 30 them held leading
positions in the government. At that time, the Consul and
Vice-consul of Portugal were Goans.lxxxiv

The majority of educated Goans served in the government of
Zanzibar others were employed in various commercial
enterprises; some ran their own business and the rest were
employed in various manual trades.lxxxv Goans had almost the
monopoly of all trades and professions and worked as sailors,
grocers, tailors, bakers, merchants and cooks. Because of
their integrity and dedication to work, the local government
invited a large number of Goans to join government service.
The result was that Goans who were pioneer merchants and
grocers in East Africa lost gradually their place in commerce
and trade.lxxxvi

The early sixties led to uncertainty for all Asians in
Africa, particularly in East Africa because of the imminence
of the independence of Kenya, Tanganyika and Uganda. Many
Goans living in British Africa enjoyed Portuguese nationality
but from 1961 they could opt for Indian citizenship. When
India became a member of the Commonwealth, Goans in East
Africa were allowed to register themselves as British
subjects and many availed of this option and acquired a
British passport, but some older Goans preferred to retain
their Indian citizenship because of a strong desire to retire
to Goa. Many Goans left for Britain from 1962 onwards.
Britain granted Zanzibar political independence in 1963.
Goans enjoyed a high standard of living in Africa and
generally did not think of returning to India, but the
independence of the African colonies left them with few
opportunities in Africa.lxxxvii Those without alternatives
returned to Goa. The younger generation migrated to the Gulf
countries or elsewhere. Those from the British East Africa
migrated to different English-speaking countries; those from
Mozambique and Angola left for Portugal and Brazil.lxxxviii

5. The West The Goan presence in the West is largely the
result of changes in the political and economic scenario of
Africa in the 1960s and 1970s which saw the departure of
British and Portuguese colonialism and the emergence of
independent nations.lxxxix Goans born and brought up in
Africa by virtue of having opted for the British and
Portuguese 31 nationalities found no favours with the local
governments and subsequently migrated to Britain, Portugal,
Canada, USA, Australia and New Zealand.

The expulsion of Asians from Uganda by President Idi Amin in
1972 led to many young Goans opting to settle in Canada. Most
Goans in the U.K. and Portugal came from East Africa.xc

a. Portugal

After World War II, the northern and central European
countries required specialised immigrant labour to respond to
the demands of industrialisation. Industrialisation in
Portugal started only in the 1950s, but even then it was
incapable of absorbing its entire labour force; hence it not
only had no need of recruiting labour from the colonies, but
its excess labour had to emigrate in large numbers.

One wave of emigration persisted for about a hundred years
from the second half of the nineteenth century when Goan
intellectuals migrated to Portugal for university education
in Lisbon and Coimbra and became clerics, doctors, engineers,
lawyers, magistrates, teachers, journalists, officials in the
army and navy, in the bureaucracy in Portugal or in its
colonies, and occupied high positions.xci Many settled in
Portugal but a few were attracted to the great centres of
culture and learning like England, France, Germany, Belgium,
Austria, Switzerland and Italy where they took up higher
studies. Those Goans who migrated to Portugal for higher
studies before 1961 and who eventually settled there,
belonged to certain elite families.

In 1961, Goa was liberated and integrated with India. At this
point the Goans could opt for Portuguese citizenship. A
number of Goan professionals in mid-life decided to migrate
to Portugal in the post-Liberation period; however, the
majority of them did not settle in Portugal but migrated to
the Portuguese colonies, especially Mozambique.xcii Some
elite emigrants did not encounter any initial difficulty in
getting assimilated in the new socio-economic milieu.

Until 1975, many Goans settled in Portugal consisted of
lawyers, students, etc., but from then on the number of Goans
increased significantly with the arrival of a large community
from Portugal's former colonies in Africa, who had opted for
Portuguese 32 nationality. Majority of Goans who entered
Portugal between 1974 and 1977 came from Mozambique and
Angola.xciii Civil war in the colonies, lack of job
opportunities and assured pension for government employees
caused Goans to emigrate to Portugal. These immigrants would
provide initial support to other emigrants from Goa in the
1980s.

The latest stream of emigration from Goa occurred in the
1990s. They consisted mostly of educated youth, kith and kin
of persons who once were Portuguese subjects, aspiring for
better economic opportunities and standard of living.
Migration to Portugal from the middle of 80s was partly due
to their receiving Portuguese nationality. However, since
1991, the General Consulate of Portugal in Goa facilitated
the acquisition of nationality more easily.

A study conducted in 1992, shows the presence of 11,000 Goans
in Portugal of whom 6,000 lived in the area of Lisbon. This
is indicative of a greater degree of integration of Goans
vis-?-vis other Indian communities in Portugal.xciv
Generally, Christian Goans were found in liberal professions
and administrative positions.

b. United Kingdom - London

Around the middle of the nineteenth century, increasing
numbers of Goans, consisting mostly of seamen abandoned by
their shipping masters, settled in London. Census for this
period excludes Goans and other Asians as a landlord could be
imprisoned for housing them, but there is evidence from other
sources to establish the presence of Goans in London.

With the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 ships from India
could travel to the U.K. by a shorter route. Companies such
as the British India Steam Navigation Company (BISNC), which
were already employing Goan crew in the Indian Ocean, now
hired them on voyages to London via Suez. The early Goan
settlers were eventually assimilated into the general
population of East London and ceased to exist as a distinct
community by the beginning of the twentieth century.xcv When
the African nations won their independence in early 1960s, a
significant number of Goans emigrated to the U.K. This
British Goan community came generally from the 'Old
Conquests' of Goa. 33

c. USA

The early Goan settlers in the US arrived from East Africa
around 80 years ago; they were not well educated. Those who
migrated in more recent times (say about 25 years ago) were
mostly professionals. The second generation migrant Goans
have no strong ties with Goa. Goans being multi-cultural
have adapted very easily wherever they have gone.
Guesstimates show that 5,000 Goan families lived in the USA
in the 1990s.xcvi d. Canada Emigration of Indians to Canada
was not attractive till 1947.xcvii

Although Goans started emigrating to Canada in the 1960s, it
is estimated that over 90 per cent of them arrived during the
1970s, largely from East Africa and Pakistan, and a smaller
group directly from Goa. Still more recently, there has been
an increasing number of Goans emigrating to Canada from the
Middle East countries, the majority being Christians,
consisting of skilled, semi-skilled workers and
professionals. Since Goans are not listed separately in
Canadian census data, no reliable statistics are available
regarding their population. However, it is estimated that
there are approximately 13,000 Goans in Ontario and another
10,000 in the rest of Canada.xcviii

In Toronto and Montreal informal 'village associations' serve
as friendship and support societies for both established
Goans and new arrivals. These 'village associations' came
into existence in the wake of the large-scale emigration of
Goan Christians to Bombay in the late nineteenth century. One
of the main purposes of such 'clubs' was to celebrate the
feast of the patron saints of the respective Goan villages
and thus renew the emigrants' ties with their native village.
These associations made it possible for the Goans to retain
their ethnic identity.

Goans have had the advantage of Western cultural linkages,
accumulated over four centuries, to aid them in adapting to
any new environment. Yet their desire to maintain alive their
traditions and unique culture is obvious.xcix The First
International Goan Convention in Toronto, Canada in 1988 as
well as the more recent one in 2008 in the same city, made a
spirited appeal to Goans to preserve and enhance their own
culture, heritage and social capital. 34

6. The Middle East
From the early decades of the twentieth century, Goans worked
in various capacities in Iran, Kuwait, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia,
Ethiopia, Aden, Bushire, Abadan and Basra.ci With the
establishment of the British petroleum companies in the Gulf
Countries, the Goan community increased further. There were
about 1,200 Goans in Bagdad, Basra, Abadan, Bahrain and Saudi
Arabia in 1956. Bahrain alone accounted for 400 Goans; there
were smaller Goan population in other Gulf Countries earlier
-- in Kuwait (120), Iran (250) and Saudi Arabia (350).cii
Some Goans were employed as white-collar workers while others
were employed as domestic helps.

The Gulf oil boon in the 1960s and 1970s attracted thousands
of Goans and this trend lasted until the early 1980s. Many
Goans, including the not so highly educated ones, made
fortunes by working there until the local population improved
their educational levels. The major portion of remittances to
Goa came from the Goans in the Gulf and these emigrants
invested heavily in housing and real estate.

There were 50,000 Goans in Kuwait, Dubai and Abu Dhabi in the
70s and a total of 150,000 Goans in the Gulf in 1987.ciii
Goan migration to the Middle East was never a permanent
phenomenon since the countries in that region do not grant
citizenship to foreign nationals; however, many have spent
decades there. Goans still prefer to move to those countries,
believing that a job there would be more rewarding than
employment in Goa.civ

7. Population in Goa

Demographic trends have had a major impact on the extent and
direction of migration and in Goa during the Portuguese
regime emigration and absence of replacement migration
resulted in a decline of population and of the economy.
Looking at the population censuses, we are in a position to
estimate the flow of migration.

There has been an appreciable decline in the rate of increase
of the population as shown by the census data for Goa. In
1910, the population of Goa increased by 16,444 (3.1 per
cent), in 1931 there was an increase of 48,010 (9 per cent)
in the population, while in 1940 there was an increase of
only 42,207 (7.6 per cent).

The reason for this fall in the 35 rate of increase of the
population must be sought in the higher rate of emigration
especially in the districts of Pernem and Bardez. The census
data shows that while the number of women increased by 13112,
the increase in the number of men was only 557. The
inevitable conclusion is that in many cases, the men
emigrated leaving the women behind. The economic conditions
in the country have made emigration a necessity, but although
the Christian population was smaller in number than the
Hindu, the number of Christian emigrants has been larger than
the number of Hindu emigrants. Statistics also indicate that
the population is shifting from the rural areas to urban
centres.cv

Year Total population
1850 362 744
1860 363 788
(Christians: 232 189; Hindus: 128 824; Muslims: 2775)
1870 384 429
1875 390 500
1876 388 712
1877 392 239
1900 475 513
(Males: 227.393; Females: 248.120)
1910 548 242
(According to the census of 1910 by Portuguese India
registered the absence of 57157 natives from Goa, Daman and
Diu).cvi
1914 700 000
1926 520 000
1931 500 000
1949 624 147.
1950 637 846
(Hindus: 488 741 ; Catholics: 334 021)
1960 600 000

The density of population per sq. km in Goa went up from 399
persons in 1960 to 982 in 2005. The last population census
held in March 2001 shows a population density of 13,47,668.
Goa has a low birth rate (death rate and infant mortality
too) but a high and constant influx of migrants. The State
has reached the level of replacement in population control in
the 1990's. The latest estimate of Total Fertility Rate was
just 1.77. The population of Goa in 2050 is likely to be
26.72 lakh, an estimate based on the 36 assumption that there
may be no significant change in natural growth and net
migration until then.cvii

* * *

i International migration or emigration is the process of
leaving a country or region with the objective of
settling temporarily or definitively in another country.
ii Frederick (FN) Noronha, Goanet-News, 24-08-2008.
iii The Anglo-Lusitano, "Emigration Committee's
Report", Bombay, November 25, 1933. p. 10.
iv Cunha,, J., 226.
v Ibid.
vi Mascarenhas-Keys, "Death Notices" , 84, 91-92.
vii Malheiros, 129-30.
viii Mascarenhas-Keyes, Souvenir: International Goan
Convention '88, 16-20.
ix Cunha, J., 231.
x Mendon?a.
xi Costa, Preface.
xii Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 12. In 1929,
literacy reached 15%. Cunha, J., 242.
xiii That system was abolished in 1915. Zachariah, 50. The
average term of an indentured contract was three
years in 1867. The system flourished in Tamil Nadu and
to some less extent in Kerala from the caste of
untouchables. Ibid., 53.
xiv The Anglo-Lusitano, "Goan Emigration, Scope in Angola
and Mozambique", February 2, 1952, p. 1.
xv Souvenir, International, 16-20.
xvi Cunha, J., 227.
xvii Ibid., 228.
xviii Ibid., 166.
xix Ibid., 19-20.
xx Ibid., 233.
xxi Bombay, 18.6.1929.
xxii Cunha, J., 199, 201.
xxiii Ibid., 26.
xxiv Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London. Ruth de Souza,
"Goans in New Zealand, Goa and Around the World".
xxv Pinto, 75.
xxvi Cunha, T., 39.
xxvii Gracias, 123-24.
xxviii Ibid., 126.
xxix Ibid.
xxx Souza, 133.
xxxi Costa. Goans became doctors, veterinaries,
professors, engineers, architects lawyers, magistrates,
occupied positions in the army and navy, air force and
government offices, in business, hotels, insurance companies;
they became musicians, artists, painters, sportspersons,
formed orchestras, etc.
xxxii Mascarenhas-Keyes, "Death Notices", 91-92.
xxxiii Pinto, Preface.
xxxiv Mascarenhas-Keys, Goans in London, 12.
xxxv Ibid.
xxxvi Souza, 150.
xxxvii Relat?rio, 2-3.
xxxviii The Anglo-Lusitano, "Os Emigrantes: Haja
Industrializa??o", Feb. 11, 1933, p. 4.
xxxix Ibid., "Emigrants' Problems", March 11, 1933, p.5.
xl Souza, 145.
xli Pinto, 19.
xlii Costa, 115.
xliii Pinto, 19.
xliv Relat?rio, 6.
xlv Souza, 147.
xlvi Ibid., 145.
xlvii Costa, 113.
xlviii Larsen, 267-68.
xlix The Anglo- Lusitano "Unemployment among Goans",
1933, p. 12.
l Ibid., "A Crise Economica de Goa", Oct 21, 1933, p. 4.
li The Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1878 made Goa more
dependent on British India.
lii Comiss?o.
liii Souza, 153.
liv Souvenir, International, 84.
lv Haward, 299.
lvi Souvenir, International, 84.
lvii Ezdani.
lviii Ibid.
lix Ibid.
lx Costa, 171-73.
lxi Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 12.
lxii Albuquerque, 39.
lxiii Ibid., 13.
lxiv Ibid.
lxv The Anglo-Lusitano, "The World that Goans Built", p.
2, July 12, 1952, p. 2.
lxvi Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 13.
lxvii Ibid.
lxviii Gracias, 125.
lxix The Anglo-Lusitano, "Emigrants' Problems", March
11, 1933, p. 5.
lxx In the seventeenth century the Portuguese government
leased in the region of Zambezi large tracts of
land for cultivation to the colonizers many of them Indians
for a period of three generations as a measure
to assist the Portuguese in asserting their sovereignty in
the colony. The system disappeared by the end of
the nineteenth century.
lxxi Costa, 171-73.
lxxii Relat?rio, 268.
lxxiii Malheiros, 128-29.
lxxiv Ibid., 163, 167.
lxxv Navhind Times, Panaji, June 5, 2008, Panaji,
"Eduardo's Mozambique visit aimed at boosting
relations", p. 5; Herald, Panaji, June 6, 2008, p. 4.
lxxvi Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 13.
lxxvii Souvenir, Fiftieth.
lxxviii The Anglo-Lusitano, Oct. 4, 1952, p. 6. Norman
Godinho who arrived in Uganda in 1906 rose to be
one of the biggest landlords in Kampala. He was the owner
of several buildings and played an important
part in the building of modern Kampala. Souvenir, Fiftieth.
lxxix Adolfo Mascarenhas "Goans in Tanzania Today" a
talk delivered at the Xavier Centre of Historical
Research, April 30, 2008.
lxxx Costa, 190.
lxxxi Herald, Panaji, June 6, 2008, p. 4.
lxxxii The millionaires Dr M F Albuquerque and Dr Eugene
Menezes.
lxxxiii Albuquerque, 19.
lxxxiv Balthazar D'Souza a Goan and M. F. Albuquerque
respectively.
lxxxv The Anglo-Lusitano, "The Goans in Zanzibar", Jan.
18, 1933, p. 6.
lxxxvi Ibid., "The Entebbe Goans Institute Governor's
Visit", Aug. 23, 2008, p.2.
lxxxvii Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 21.
lxxxviii Mascarenhas-Keyes, "Death Notices", 89.
lxxxix Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 18.
xc Ibid.
xci Costa, 85.
xcii Malheiros, 132.
xciii Ibid., 132.
xciv Ibid., 140-41.
xcv Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London.
xcvi The Goan Review, "US itself has abut 5000 Goan
families", March-April 1998, p. 50.
xcvii Zachariah, 64.
xcviii Wagle.
xcix Wagle.
c Souvenir: International. Reunion of Goans from across the
world.
ci Costa, 187.
cii Ibid., 188-89.
ciii Goa Today, 10.
civ The Navhind Times, "Money factor still luring Goans
Abroad" by Minoo Fernandes, Panaji, January 25,
2008, p. 1.
cv The Anglo-Lusitano, "Census of Portuguese India",
March 22, 1951, p. 1.
cvi Metahistory, 239. 63.765 natives of Portuguese India
were registered in British India.
cviiGoa's Friday Balcao, 14th July,

Bibliography

Albuquerque, Teresa, Goans in Kenya, Mumbai, Popular Offset
Printers.
Alguns Aspectos Demogr?ficos de Goa, Dam?o e Diu, 1965.
Castro, Jeronymo Os?rio de, Relat?rio Annu?rio da
Administra??o do Concelho das
Ilhas de Goa -- 1904 , , Nova Goa, Imprensa Nacional , 1904.
Comiss?o Administrativa do Fundo dos Emigrantes, Nova Goa,
Imprensa Nacional, 1936.
Costa, P.J. Peregrino da, A Expans?o do Go?s pelo Mundo,
Goa, Colec??o de Divulga?e Cultura, No. 28, 1956.
Cunha, J. J. da, Nossa Terra. Estudos Econ?micos,
Financeiros, Sociais e Internacionais,
Vol. 1, Bastor?, Tipografia Rangel, 1939.
Cunha, T. B., Goa's Freedom Struggle, Bombay, New Age
Printing Press, 1961.
Dias, Remy, "Consumption History of Estado da India:
Migration and its Impact, 1850-
1950", in Metahistory, Charles Borges and Pearson,
(Coord.), Lisbon, Nova
Vega, 2007, pp. 235-45.
Ezdani, Yvonne Vaz (ed), Songs of the Survivors, Goa, Goa
1556, 2007.
Fernandes, Avertano C., "Emigra??o Indo-Portuguesa",
offprint of Boletim da Sociedade
de Geografia de Lisboa, 1938, nos. 7 & 8.
Friday Balcao, 14 July, 2008. "Focus on Factors for Goa's
Population Growth".
Goa Today, "Call of the Gulf", Vol. XXIII, No. 2, October
1988.
Gracias, F?tima da Silva, The Many Faces of Sundorem: Women
in Goa, Panjim, Surya
Publications, 2007.
Haward, Raffat Khan, "An Urban Minority: The Goan Christian
Community in Karachi", The City in South Asia: Pre-Modern and
Modern, Kenneth Ballhatchet and Harrison (eds), Centre of
South Asian Studies, Curson Press, London, 1980, pp.
299-318.
Indo-Portuguese Association, The Fourth Annual Report 1914,
Calcutta, 1915.
Larsen, Karin , Faces of Goa, New Delhi, Gyan Publishing
House, 1998.
Malheiros, Jorge Maca?sta, Imigrantes na Regi?o de
Lisboa: Os Anos da Mudan?a,
Edi??es Lisboa, Colibri, 1996.
Mascarenhas-Keyes, Stella, "Death notices and dispersal:
International migration among
Catholic Goans", in Jeremy Eades (ed), Migrants, Workers
and the Social Order,
ASA Monographs 26, London, Tavistock Publications, 1987, pp.
82-98.
--------, Goans in London: Portrait of a Catholic Asian
Community, A Goan Association
(UK) Publication, 1979.
Mendon?a, D?lio de, Conversions and Citizenry: Goa under
Portugal, 1510-1610, New
Delhi, Concept Publishing Company, 2002.
Pinto, J. B., Goan Emigration, Pangim, Printers Boa Sorte,
1958.
Rego, A. da Silva, "Ra?zes de Goa", Offprint of
Revista do Gabinete de Estudos
Ultramarinos, Lisboa, 1956.
Relat?rio da Comiss?o de Inqu?rito ? situa??o
dos emigrantes Indo-Portugueses na
India Brit?nica Apresentado a Sua Ex.? o Governador-geral
do Estado da India, Nova Goa, Imprensa Nacional, 1931.
Souza, Robert de, Goa and the Continent of Circe, Bombay,
Wilco Publishing House, 1973.
Souvenir, Fiftieth Anniversary, Goan Institute of Kampala,
1960.
Souvenir, International Goan Convention '88, Toronto.
Wagle, N.K.,
www.multiculturalcanada.ca/ecp/content/goans.html.
Zachariah, K.C., E T Mathew and S Irudaya Rajan, Dynamics
of Migration in Kerala:
Dimensions, Differentials and Consequences, New Delhi, Orient
Longman, 2003.
K.C.Zachariah., S.Irudaya Rajan, Migration, Remittances and
Employment Short-term
trends and Long-term Implications. Working Paper 395, Centre
for Development Studies,
Trivandrum, December 2007

THIS IS AN excerpt from the Goa Migration Study, 2008. Goanet Reader
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EMIGRATION FROM GOA: A HISTORICAL VIEW
Excerpt from the Goa Migration Study 2008 (Goa NRI Commission)

1. Introduction

Goans have been migrating before, during and after the
colonial times. From the beginning of the sixteenth century,
Goa became the earliest territory in the non-western world
that was exposed to Western culture and values. The influence
of the new Western culture, or rather, that fusion of Eastern
and Western cultures that the Goans grew up with, encouraged
traditions of knowledge, honesty and hard work and opened to
the doors to the world to Goans, providing them with a
distinct advantage wherever they went.

The influence of Christianity, Western education and cultural
syncretism endowed the Goans with an inclusive identity and
facilitated their migration and adaptation to new and
different cultural contexts. Goans have played a very
significant part, although not often fully recognised, in the
creation of modern Indian culture in different areas of life
and art.

The Goan identity has been acknowledged as being
unique and has been appreciated universally. The opinion poll
held in Goa in 1967, during which Goans decided against
merging Goa with any other neighbouring state, speaks volumes
for the determination of the Goans in preserving their unique
cultural identity and autonomy. Their cultural identity
earned national recognition when on May 31, 1987 Goa became
the 25th state in the Republic of India.

Goans living in different parts of the world have
carved out a world of their own on the solid
foundation of their ancient culture. A significant
portion of Goa's prosperity is accounted for by
international migration.i Remittances have enabled
Goans to step up their investment in education,
real estate and housing considerably. Besides
accounting for large remittances, the migrants have
also served as unofficial ambassadors of an
inclusive and unique culture. It is obvious that
migration studies help to understand the identity
of the emigrants who, in many instances, never
returned to their country of 11 origin. The more
connected they feel to their original identity,
culture and heritage, the greater will be their
contribution to their country of origin in terms of
remittances or as unofficial ambassadors.

The long history of Goan emigrants has been captured in the
very emotional Goan song in Konkani 'Adeus Korchea Vellar'
(The Time to Say Goodbye). It conveys the sentiments of a
people who have known the price of separation from a land
that is so full of scenic beauty, so peaceful yet lacking in
employment opportunities.ii Goa was a Portuguese enclave for
over four centuries; it had clearly demarcated political
boundaries.

Naturally, migration to destinations outside Goa involved
crossing national boundaries. Obviously, any out-migration
to India before Goa was integrated into the Indian Union was
perceived as international.

Christian (Catholic) Goans had a higher geographical and
occupational mobility because of their easy adaptability to
any environment, their cultural openness and hospitable
nature. Education was a strong factor influencing emigration.

Modern life has created serious problems for the migrants as
well as concerns for the host countries and countries of
origin. Violation of human rights of migrant workers and of
their families have led governments to initiate campaigns for
informing citizens about their rights and obligations and
preparing emigrants to solve their severe problems at the
place of destination.
From the beginning of the twentieth century, nations have
been paying greater attention to the grievance and
difficulties of the emigrants. Concerns, issues and problems
of the emigrants have been debated at the national level
since suitable solutions often eluded them, except for a
perception that solutions needed to be global and
sustainable.

Several nations have embarked on scientific studies of
migration movements and its dynamics in recent decades using
new data from surveys and they claim to have greater control
over migration for enacting legislation. Attempts are being
made in initiating policies and schemes for migrants' welfare
in the sending countries and also for involving the migrants
in the development of the origin countries. In spite of the
Goan emigration spanning centuries and becoming worldwide,
the phenomenon has not yet been examined in depth. The task
is not going to be easy due to lack of reliable records. 12

The Portuguese administration of Goa was not in the
practice of registering the number of Goan
emigrants. In the years of the Great Depression,
the Portuguese Law Commission in Goa had appointed
a committee of inquiry to study the social and
economic conditions of Goans in British India and
to recommend the means for securing the wellbeing
of the migrants.

This committee received support from the civil and
ecclesiastical authorities and from the entire Goan community
which offered financial and medical assistance. As a result a
Goan Emigration Fund was created.iii The committee organised
relief work, including a subsistence allowance to the poor
Goans, and encouraged the emigrants to initiate projects back
home.

Critical issues affecting Goa were widely discussed. This
period also witnessed the beginning of a serious study of
Goan migration. Perceptions about Goan emigration abound as
do theories to explain the process of emigration itself.
Emigrants constitute a significant economic force both in the
host country and in the country of origin. Remittances by
migrants have done more to alleviate poverty rather than help
develop other sectors.

In the past, the survival and development of certain
industries critically depended on emigrants. Besides sending
regular remittances, every emigrant who returned to Goa even
for a short vacation contributed to its economy. In general,
migration brought about visible improvement to the social and
economic life of the Goans.

Traditional explanations viewed Goan emigration as
an involuntary act or as a desperate act of escape
from a hapless situation by those who looked down
upon Goa as primitive and a place where one could
do nothing do raise one's personal status. High
population density, which exerted pressure on
employment, was a major cause for migration.

There was a perception that the most able-bodied Goans
(educated or uneducated, skilled or unskilled) were forced to
regard migration as the natural course and took advantage of
it at the earliest available opportunity, except perhaps the
Hindus. Additionally, the nationalistic discourse began to
hammer a feeling into the emigrant Goans as being
'denationalised' Goans with little love for Goa.iv Goans felt
that a great number of Portuguese laws which were
particularly harsh forced the natives to emigrate.v To the
Portuguese Government in Goa, Goan emigration was inevitable
and large-scale 13 migration to British India was a necessary
economic evil, although many of them were happy to return if
job opportunities could be found in Goa.

Besides work in the moribund agricultural sector, Goa could
offer little else.

Recent studies recognise that migration involves more than
passive reactions to unfavourable economic opportunities at
home and it does not necessarily lead to a clean snapping of
ties with the country of origin. People take deliberate
measures to improve their lifestyle and that of their
relatives in other geographical locations with more
favourable labour markets. In fact, this constitutes a
determinant for the large-scale and global dispersion or
international migration of Christian Goans in recent
decades.vi

Wherever Goans have settled down, they contributed
very significantly. A major wave of migration from
Goa began in 1830, initially towards British India,
made possible by improvements of transport, the
commercial decadence of Goa and the growing demand
for labour in cities like Bombay and Pune.

The fact that the Goans were the only Westernized and
academically qualified persons that the British could count
upon, explains their recruitment to several sectors like
education, administration and health. The presence of Goans
in large numbers outside Goa can be judged by the fact that
their remittances were essential for balancing the commercial
transactions in Goa.vii

Goa, although a small place, has a vast international
diaspora. Goans have travelled during the colonial times to
almost all corners of the world, so much so that it would be
difficult to name a country without a Goan community.viii

Unfortunately, we lack reliable statistics on Goan emigration
which makes the numbers rather speculative. However, we might
venture to assert that the widening adverse balance of trade
served as an impetus to emigration. The majority of emigrants
did not have the necessary background and the Portuguese
Government did almost nothing for the prospective migrants.ix

Emigration, whether to places like Myanmar decades ago or to
the Gulf in more recent times, has come largely from the
Christian population in the State due to a range of
historical factors. Hindu Goans also migrated but they formed
a small minority in comparison with Christians. Assessment of
the positive and negative consequences of migration can
provide new insights into its impact on society as a whole
and on particular 14 categories (e.g,, migrant households).
In this chapter we attempt to make such an assessment.

2. The State of Goa (political unit)

A brief history of Goa will serve as an introduction to the
determinants and consequences of Goan migration to India and
overseas and to issues relating to migration such as
identity, adaptability and emergence of new cultural
patterns.

Goa, on the southwest coast of India, has an area of 3,701
square kilometres. The Bhojas, Mauryas, Chalukyas,
Rashtrakutas, Shilaharas, Kadambas, Yadavas, Bahmanis, the
Vijayanagar and the Bijapur dynasties ruled Goa at different
times. During ancient times, Goa was famous for its seaport
and international commercial traffic.

It is no wonder that the Goans could have had commercial
connections with the ancient cultures of Mesopotamia and the
Indus Valley. Goans traded with East Africa in the tenth
century which shows that they were truly seafarers and
intercontinental movers. Goa's global trade and traffic
increased manifold when the Portuguese captured it from the
Muslim rulers in 1510.

The city of Goa evolved into a major port of call
and as a business station between Europe and the
East. In 1530, it became the capital of the
Portuguese Eastern Empire. A unique culture, a
fusion of Eastern and Western values, Goa began to
be increasingly admired for its Indo-Portuguese
cultural and architectural characteristics from the
nineteenth century.x It remained a Portuguese
colony for about 450 years until 1961.

Many Portuguese seamen died in the tropics and so the
Christian Goans became part of the Portuguese seafaring
tradition. They sailed on Portuguese ships throughout the
Indian Ocean to the Far East, Africa, Brazil and Europe. We
come across Goans in Macao since the seventeenth century. In
1784, 150 Goan soldiers arrived in Macao to defend it.
Hindus have been somewhat reluctant to sail due to the old
religious and cultural prejudices or to the attachment to the
joint family with its traditional values. There is little
evidence to suggest that Hindu Goans migrated outside the
Indian subcontinent. 15

The intense missionary activity led the local Hindu
population to convert to Christianity. Many Hindus resisted
conversion and migrated to the neighbouring regions of
Karwar, Belgaum and Mangalore during the period of the mass
conversion movement initiated in the 1540s. Migration was
preferred to abandoning traditional religious and cultural
practices; heavy taxation was another reason for leaving the
land.xi

Reputed for its long white sandy beaches, and houses and
churches with unique architectural traits, Goa has become the
most attractive tourist destination along India's western
coast. The state of Goa has more than 1.3 million people
which include Hindus (65%), Christians (34%), and a small
community of Muslims. Before 1961, Goa had a population
comprising 42 percent of Christians, the majority living in
'Old Conquests'. At this point, we need to clarify two
concepts: the 'Old Conquests' of Goa (territories conquered
by the Portuguese from 1510 to 1543) and the 'New Conquests'
(territories contiguous to the Old Conquests which were
annexed and added to Goa in the last quarter of the
eighteenth century).

The New Conquests cover three fourths of the area
of present state of Goa and have remained
predominantly Hindu. Obviously, the Portuguese
influence on the Old Conquests has been significant
as is evident from a large Christian population.
The majority of emigrants have originated from
here. Obviously most studies on emigration have
been linked the Old Conquests (Bardez, Salcete,
Tiswadi and Mormugao).

Conversion to Christianity, Western education and Portuguese
law brought radical changes in lifestyle, including dietary
habits, attire and world view. Education, through the medium
of Portuguese language, was reserved to Christians although
not exclusively until the 1750s when more egalitarian social
reforms were introduced in Portugal and Goa.

In 1910, Portuguese law mandated a secular education and from
then on, many Hindus availed of education in the Portuguese
medium. The Portuguese established one or two schools in
every village and in the middle of the nineteenth century
they founded in the capital city of Panaji, a Lyceum where
all sciences were taught, a Medical College and a Law
College. Many intellectuals, doctors and lawyers studied
there and subsequently emigrated to other Portuguese colonies
like Mozambique, Angola and Macao.xii 16

Although the Old Conquests were densely populated,
the Portuguese did not do much to set up new
industries, and the existing ones proved inadequate
to generate sufficient employment. Consequently,
nearly one tenth of the population was forced to
migrate.

In 1930s, 70,000 Goans had migrated, out of which 55,000
migrated to British India. In 1960, on the eve of Goa's
political liberation there were 100,000 emigrants in a
population of 600,000. Surprisingly, in spite of the lack of
employment opportunities misery never prevailed in Goa. Goa
has no history of indentured labour or a system of
quasi-slavery of agricultural work force created by the
British -- as a consequence of the abolition of slavery in
the British Empire in 1834 and the shortage of workers -- for
their sugarcane and tea plantations, in other colonies.xiii 17

a. Society and Economy

The major traditional occupation was subsistence farming of
land owned jointly by the gauncars (native inhabitants) and
managed by the village communities, but soon after the
arrival of the Portuguese a system of private property was
introduced. Despite being an agrarian society only a small
percentage of the population, about 10% derived direct
sustenance from the land; scarcely 2% of the population owned
landed property, which yielded a return sufficient for the
maintenance of the owner and of his family.xiv

The agriculturists who cultivated their rice fields earned
just enough to keep themselves and their families alive. At
least 40% of the adult male population had to migrate in
order to earn a living. The population census of 1881 shows
that the number of cultivators of 'toddy' and makers of
'jaggery' (coconut confection) in the entire 'Estado da
India' (Goa, Daman and Diu) was 7,512, but from that year to
1910 the number came down to almost 4,000 (i.e., 3,512
persons had emigrated).

In contrast to the deteriorating economic conditions,
declining agricultural output and rise of population, various
international developments taking place around the middle of
the nineteenth century raised fresh hopes of employment
opportunities. The introduction of steamships reduced
distances. The military and civilian settlements of the
British in India, Burma and Middle East created a huge demand
for personnel who could meet European tastes in food, drink,
music, dress and medicine.

Christians, who had been distressed by the adverse
local conditions, took advantage of these
opportunities, unlike Hindus and Muslims, and they
worked as cooks, stewards, butlers, musicians,
tailors, ayahs (servant maids) and bakers; a few
worked as pharmacists, clerks, doctors and nurses.
The honesty and hard work demonstrated by the Goans
stood them in good stead and the British officials
and commercial companies began preferring them as
their employees.

Early migrants rarely brought their families along with them
and many of those who came to British India stayed at the
famed residential clubs for workers ('Coors') founded by
Goans as a support structure for migrants.xv From the 1920s
the Portuguese government began levying an 'emigration tax'
on every Goan intending to leave Goa in search of
employment.xvi In 1933, an 'emigration tax' of 18 10-12
'tangas' (Rs 1.00) per person brought in an annual revenue of
Rs 60,000.00.

There was an agitation against that tax which was,
interestingly, also imposed on Goan emigrants returning home.
Moreover the Portuguese government introduced a 'military
tax' to be paid before a Goan's departure from Goa to seek
employment elsewhere despite the evident fact that the
emigrant contributed substantially to the Goan economy
through remittances.

Emigrants had to pay a tax on their property in Goa
which forced many to invest outside Goa. Around
this time when entire families emigrated
permanently they preferred to sell their ancestral
properties in Goa.

Thus important Goan settlements appeared in Santa Cruz in
Mumbai, Calcutta, Karachi, Aden, etc.xvii In the 1920s,
emigration to British India was on the increase but the
thenworld economic crisis forced many to return to Goa.xviii

In 1928, the emigrants had sent home remittances to the tune
of Rs. 134.25 lakh. The remittances enabled the emigrants'
families to maintain a high standard of living as they could
pay for luxury goods, like silk clothing and fine cotton,
wines, liqueur, beer and cigars.xix Goa owed much to the
emigrants whose remittances were responsible for covering the
state's annual deficit of Rs. 138 lakh.xx According to
official statistics on import/export as reported in the
newspaper Times of India,xxi exports for 1928 was Rs. 46 lakh
and imports, Rs.184 lakh, or four times more than exports.xxii

As living in Goa became more expensive, emigration to British
India increased. The Portuguese government encouraged
migration and the British welcomed it.xxiii With the
departure of the British from India in 1947, Goans who were
employed in considerable numbers in British firms lost their
jobs which resulted in their return home in 1948-59.xxiv

Further, the prohibition of liquor led to the closing down of
many hotels and restaurants owned or staffed by Goans.
Suitable employment was scarce and even the educated Goans
experienced great difficult in securing jobs in the
Government. Earlier, British East Africa had attracted a
large number of Goans, but the immigration laws in course of
time became severe and work permits were not easily
available.

Angola and Mozambique opened their labour markets to skilled
and unskilled emigrants. Nevertheless, many continued to
migrate to Belgaum, Pune and Bombay to educate their children
in English medium schools and colleges. 19

With a stagnant Goan economy, Goans looked outwards for work.
Moreover, most of the communities like the Gawdas and Kunbis
(original inhabitants of Goa) as well as several other
communities of agriculturists gave up their farming
activities and shifted to construction-related sectors as
agriculture could not offer enough returns. Moreover, some
held work on the farm in low esteem.

The constant increase in tax on the coconut produce
caused the emigration of many tillers to British
India. The discovery of iron ore and manganese
resources in Goa in the 1950s provided some relief,
but even that did not prevent considerable
emigration. After the liberation of Goa in 1961
further emigration occurred. The tourism industry
in the 70s provided a huge relief.

The mining industry and the accompanying alluring incentives
created acute problems like scarcity of labour for
agriculture. The wages which labourers were offered in the
mines were twice as much as the wages paid for working in the
fields or palm groves in the villages. The labourer could not
resist the offer. The mass departure of labour to the mining
sector was unstoppable, creating fears of shortage of labour
for the rice fields and palm trees. The government persuaded
the mine owners to use machinery in order to minimise damage
to agriculture.

Emigration was held responsible for the dwindling of
agriculture and industry, so also for many other misfortunes
of Goa.xxv Emigration slowed down the economic progress of
Goa. But restrictions on exports due to tariff barriers
reduced the country's productivity. Emigration rose due to
the scarcity of work, lack of industries and the
disproportion between wages and cost of living caused by the
government's policy of high customs duties.xxvi Sadly, Goan
emigrants contributed to foreign lands at the cost of their own.

b. Female Migration

Women rarely accompanied their migrant husbands. However, the
migration of Goan women to the neighbouring states is not a
recent phenomenon though there are no statistics to show the
flow of female migration. Female migration to British India
and Africa began in the first half of the twentieth century,
and to other parts of world from 1961. Some migrated due to
the high cost of living in Goa and a few others, to further
their studies. Goan women in Africa and India took up jobs of
teachers, clerks, secretaries, typists, nurses, and worked in
factories owned by the rich British and Parsi 20 families.

Their standard of living was much higher than that
of most of their counterparts in Goa.xxvii The fact
that they were absorbed in such jobs reflects the
greater independence and skills of Goan women.

Some women migrated alone, others to marry Goans, these often
settled in British India or Bombay. These women from the
poorer classes, were unskilled workers between the ages of
18-45 years from Christian and Hindu backgrounds. Women from
middle and upper classes seldom migrated except for
furthering their studies or accompanying with their husbands.
Lack of institutions of higher education in Goa led some
parents to send their children for higher studies to Bombay,
Bangalore, Pune, Belgaum and Dharwar.xxviii

Migration also had some ill effects. As reported in 1923, 510
Goan women were working as prostitutes and for this reason
the Church in Goa began discouraging migration of women.xxix
The majority of such women belonged the tradition of temple
dancing girls. Emigration might have led to some moral
degradation but the conduct of the emigrants, devotion to
work, employer and family was commendable and their services
were greatly sought after.xxx

c. Trends in Goan Emigration

Large-scale international migration from Goa took place only
during the past 170 years. Migration trends according to
destination or changing patterns could be illustrated in
chronological order as follows: British India and Asia: From
1850s, with the establishment of the railway lines and the
steam ships, the Goans, especially the Christians equipped
with English education, went mainly to Bombay and also to
Pune, Dharwar and Calcutta, and many, by their own efforts
and competence, occupied important positions.xxxi

Some chose to travel to Karachi, others to the east across
mainland India to ports like Madras and Calcutta and thence
From the early decades of the twentieth century, Goans began
settling down mainly in Portuguese and British colonies in
East Africa. Europe and America: Considerable emigration
took place to these regions after World War II. 21

Gulf Countries: This region became the main destination for
Goans with the discovery of oil in 1970s.

Destinations were determined mostly by economic factors such
as opportunities for employment or labour shortage.
Immigration laws were another major determinant. But the
choice of destination could also be influenced by contacts --
relatives and friends or acquaintances who had migrated
earlier. Clubs and associations sprang up to provide cheap
accommodation to the newly arrived migrants. Goans generally
migrated on the strengths of personal contacts, with no
government sponsorship or church support.xxxii

3. British India - Asia

Goans began working for the British when the naval fleet of
the British Indian government was stationed in Goa between
1797 and 1813, in anticipation of an attack by the French
(which never took place) on the British Indian Possessions.
The British naval personnel recruited Christian Goans to work
for them because of the latter's western penchant which
pleased the British. When the British fleet withdrew from Goa
and established stations in Bombay, Karachi, Madras, Calcutta
and Singapore their Goan staff followed them.xxxiii

Migration of Goans to British India continued throughout the
early part of the nineteenth century, but it was since the
middle of the century that a significant flow of migration
took place. Immediately after the Indian Mutiny in 1857, the
British reasserted their power with the proclamation by Queen
Victoria of the takeover of the Indian affairs by the British
Crown. The British then began setting up a vast railway
network for the quick movement of troops.

The Goans poured out of Goa and got jobs on the
Great Indian Peninsula Railway and the Bombay
Baroda and Central Indian Railway. The construction
of the Western Indian Portuguese railways in the
late nineteenth century provided additional impetus
for the Goans from the Old Conquests to migrate,
and subsequently they settled in large numbers in
Hubli, Belgaum, Mumbai and Pune.xxxiv

The Portuguese government opened English medium schools in
Bardez and Salcete to prepare the Goan emigrants, so much so
that there were more such schools than 22 Portuguese ones.
Moreover parents sent their wards to the neighbouring cities
of Pune, Belgaum, Mumbai and Bangalore since life there was
cheaper and English education was more advantageous.xxxv

In 1911, the census of British India registered
636,75 individuals born in Portuguese India.
Excess of population in Goa, poor management of
agriculture and absence of industries produced
waves of migration.

In 1919, Goans settled in Bengal (1,000) and Calcutta
(800).xxxvi In 1931, Goa had a population of 500,000. Around
55,000 to 60,000 people, mostly from the Old Conquests,
hacked a living in British India. Spread throughout India
they formed prominent groups in Bombay (45000), Karachi
(3,500), Calcutta (1,000), Rangoon (800) and of these only
7,500 were Hindus and Muslims.xxxvii In the same year,
emigration increased since the emigrants moved with their
families with the intention of settling down especially in
Bombay and Karachi. In 1933 there were 100,000 Goan
emigrants of whom 60,000 lived in British India.xxxviii

British India ran into a serious recession in the 1930s. The
Goan Emigrants Fund Committee, organised to deal with the
crisis, through its relief measure, trained many poor,
especially women in sewing, nursing, care of infants, etc.,
and helped them to secure employment on reasonably good
wages.

Lack of training resulted in their being exploited by
unscrupulous employers. The number of educated among the
local population had increased, but they did not mind doing
any job regardless of the wage. On the other hand, the Goans
showed lack of adaptability and initiative; they waited for
clerical work and showed little interest in any other work.

Seamen, during their enforced leisure, would not
accept work in the agricultural sector. Domestic
workers were averse to working as salesperson,
likewise gardening or rearing of poultry was
abhorred.xxxix Unemployment was widespread among
the Goans in British India in 1936 and one of the
measures proposed by the Goan Emigrants Fund
Committee was to settle them on land left
uncultivated in the New Conquests due to shortage
of labour.

Despite facilities and subsidies from the government, lack of
water and failed monsoons discouraged the agriculturist
settlers. A great number had returned to Goa; others had
opted for the Gulf countries. 23

In 1938, Bombay counted 45,000 Goans, Karachi 4,500, Pune
2,500, Calcutta 1,200, Rangoon 800 and Nagpur 500, besides
smaller numbers in other centres. Of these only 8,000 were
Hindus and Muslims and the rest were Christians.xl World War
II opened up opportunities for labour and in 1947, there were
around 100,000 Goans in British India,xli of whom 10,000 were
illiterate and working in low-paid jobs as cooks and as ayahs.

Ten years later, in 1956, the number of Goans in India and
Karachi continued to be 100,000.xlii Wherever they had been,
they founded institutes, reading rooms, cultural centres,
leisure venues for social conviviality, and established
charitable associations, all of which revealed their sense of
solidarity. Celebrations of feasts of saints and patrons of
their native villages carried out with fervour and pomp speak
volumes for their attachment to tradition. Around 1958, food
grains in Goa became more expensive than in British India
compelling many Goans to migrate increasingly.xliii The Goan
migrants lived on modest salaries; the majority lived on a
monthly salary of less than Rs 100.00 in 1938.xliv

a. Bombay

Bombay belonged to the Portuguese until 1661 when it was
given to Britain as part of the dowry of Queen Catherine who
was married to Charles II of England. Since then the British
helped Goans to migrate and some families settled in
Mazagaon.

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, when Bombay was
growing as a business centre the number of Goans was already
high and in the 1950s, Bombay counted 8,000 Goans who
occupied positions in business, liberal professions and
administration, and later female emigrants of lower strata
joined the domestic labour force.xlv

Emigration increased with the economic development of the
city. During World War I, there were over 12,000 Goan seamen
in Bombay and after the war around 7,500. Goan emigration
must have increased 30 to 50 per cent between 1915-1935.xlvi
Around 12,000 Goans worked in public services in Bombay in
1956.xlvii

Hindu Brahmins, culturally and educationally more
advanced, migrated to Bombay during the early
1900s; some established jewellery shops and did
well as a community. Christians from lower
communities migrated and opened tailoring shops;
the more 24 resourceful ones opened restaurants and
guest-houses.xlviii A number of Goans improved
their lot, while many others had to struggle to
survive.

The Goan Emigrants Fund Committee, an official organisation
established in Bombay, reported serious unemployment, poorly
paid jobs and extreme poverty among the Goans. Unemployment
worsened with the arrival of labourers from other parts of
India in the 1930s who were willing to work for any wage,
while the Goans were not willing to leave Bombay or forgo the
amenities of urban life to settle in Goan villages.

Although the Goa government announced easy loans and enacted
legislation on land tenure, the Goans did not seem to be
interested in availing of these facilities.xlix They depended
absolutely on British India. Reduced exports from Goa on the
one hand and expensive imports on the other combined with the
return of emigrants to Goa who remained idle, deepened the
economic crisis.l

The employment situation in Bombay was of serious concern to
the Portuguese government in Goa, since Goa was totally
dependent on economic conditions in British India.li The
Portuguese government did not spare any effort to find
different solutions and framed policies to resolve the issue.
To alleviate the poverty of Goans in Bombay, the Goa
government sought to repatriate those with no possibility of
finding employment in Bombay. The government motivated the
expatriates to take up land for cultivation in the Sanguem
region of Goa with financial assistance from the
government.lii

The Goan community in Bombay was one of the most active in
several fields including the establishment of schools. The
city of Bombay became a place for exile and political
activity for the Goans in the second half of the nineteenth
century, when Goa experienced political uncertainty as a
result of the establishment of constitutional monarchy in
Portugal in 1820.liii

Bombay, a place to migrate to, was since the 1950s, replaced
by Bangalore, the Gulf countries, United Kingdom, United
States, Canada and Australia, these being the most popular
destinations in recent years. Bombay had become a stepping
stone for migration to different parts of the world. 25

b. Pakistan

The Goans, mostly Christians, arrived in Karachi in 1842 when
the British occupied that small fishing village.liv Despite
the social constraints imposed on them, this cohesive
minority community achieved quick success. Goans served as
clerks in government offices, in the armed forces and some
opened businesses.lv

Already a sizable number were residing in the city
in 1869 and later, from 1913, the 'coors' assisted
the working class to migrate to Pakistan. By the
turn of the century, several Goans had established
business houses of which a few became public
companies with Goans as their chief executives.
Many streets in Karachi were named after eminent Goans.

In 1947, Partition created new opportunities for qualified
Goans to occupy high positions in government services due to
the departure of the British and the Hindus.lvi However, the
formation of Pakistan in 1947, created uncertainty among the
Goans and with Goa's liberation in 1961 and its political
incorporation into the Indian Union, the Goans in Pakistan
had the links with their homeland completely severed. Many
Goans, mostly young, left Karachi. There were more than 5,000
Goans in Karachi in 1958.

c. Burma

When the Portuguese first went to Burma in the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries, they must have taken with them some
Goans but they did not settle there permanently. From the end
of the nineteenth century, Christian Goans began to migrate
to Burma or Myanmar as it is known today, but it was from the
early 20th century, that many settled in East Rangoon. Burma
always had an isolationist policy and never welcomed
foreigners till the 1980s.lvii

In 1886, King Thibaw was dethroned by the British and the
whole of Burma came under British rule. Many Goans were
transferred from the Indian Posts and Telegraphs Department
and Indian Railways (mostly from Karachi and Calcutta) to
Burma. In addition, many Goans with musical talent went to
Burma in the 1920s to provide their services to the silent
movie industry and to the flourishing cinema houses in 1930s.
Many of them stayed on as music teachers, dealers in musical
instruments and formed bands for clubs and hotels. We could
assume the existence of migratory waves of Goans to Burma 26
in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.lviii
There were 800 Goans in Rangoon in 1931.

When World War II broke out in Burma, there were no more than
a hundred Goan families living there. When the Japanese
planes bombed the city of Rangoon (Yangon) in 1941, Goan
emigrants were caught in the real life drama for survival.

Many trekked through jungles and mountains and streams amidst
great dangers and hardships back to India where they settled
in different places. Some Goans decided to stay on in Burma
during the Japanese occupation and a few others opted for
Burmese nationality. The Japanese invasion was the end of the
Goan emigration.lix

Burma became an independent republic in 1948.

4. East Africa

From as early as the sixteenth century, Goans had
helped the Portuguese to penetrate the inhospitable
territories in Africa.lx In the eighteenth century,
Goan traders settled in Mozambique and other parts
of East Africa. They participated in the trade in
ivory and gold between Goa and East Africa and
established large import-export businesses.lxi In
1921, the East Africa statistics of business listed
426 Goans.lxii

The second quarter of the nineteenth century witnessed
increasing interest and intense competition among the
European nations for laying exclusive claims on African
territories. This rivalry culminated in the Berlin Conference
(1884-85) and the British Ultimatum to Portugal (1890) meant
to regulate European colonisation and trade in Africa.
Finally, however, the African continent was divided among the
European competitors. The years following the 'Scramble of
Africa' saw a large number of emigrants assisting the
colonial nations in consolidating their claims.

Between 1890 and 1895, when the British government took over
the administration in East Africa, the policy of employing
Goans in the colonial civil service and telegraph offices was
already established. By 1890, there were 160 Goans in
Mombassa forming the backbone of the port administration.
When the British colonial government began constructing the
Uganda Railways in 1896, Goans were employed as stewards and
administrative staff for the East African Railways &
Harbours. There was however no indentured labour from
Goa.lxiii

At the turn of the century, emigration increased with the 27
expansion of British and Portuguese colonialism in Africa.
Knowledge of Portuguese and English helped the Goans.

The British India Steam Navigation Company (BISNC) had
employed Goans as clerks in their offices around the Indian
Ocean as early as 1874 and the company began relying on Goan
staff to run its offices in East Africa.lxiv On the whole,
Goans made tremendous progress in cities like Louren?o
Marques (today Maputo), Beira, Dar es Salaam, Nairobi,
Kampala, Mombassa and Zanzibar.lxv

Emigration reached a peak in the years between the World Wars
(1918 to 1939), when many Goan seamen who had served in the
Merchant or Royal Navy during the First World War moved to
East Africa with their families.lxvi With the independence of
India, many Goans employed in civil services and the army in
British India were offered jobs in East Africa by the British
government and a large number migrated between 1948 and 1959
and settled there for years until the independence of those
countries.lxvii

Goans contributed to pioneering work in the fields
of medicine, education, etc.lxviii Acute
unemployment hit Africa and Persia in 1930s forcing
hundreds of Goans to return home. The shipping
companies, always appreciative of the Goans'
performance and loyalty, began retrenching their
staff. It is pointed out that over 2000 unemployed
Goans in British East Africa had no financial
resources to return to India.lxix

a. Mozambique

Migration to Mozambique, a Portuguese colony, began in the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries but in the following
century we hear of Goan administrators, missionaries and
colonisers in control of 'Prazos da Zamb?zia'.lxx

The Portuguese colonies especially Mozambique recruited Goans
who were literate in Portuguese to work as clerks and
administrators. Some Goans became very rich and contributed
to the pacification or colonisation of local tribal chiefs
and population with their own local army in the region of
Zambezi. Others occupied high posts in the
administration.lxxi

The district administrator in Goa promoted emigration to
Mozambique. In 1897, the government appointed an Emigration
Commission (Comiss?o Protectora da Emigra??o) Mozambique
for the purpose of gathering all information regarding the
places where 28 the Goans could find employment as well as
information on salaries, and the government assisted those
who wished to migrate.lxxii Goans migrated to three major
cities: Maputo, Beira and Nampula. Maputo and Beira, regions
with a significant community, became favourite destinations
since the Goans possessed skills associated with public
institutions, administration and white collar jobs such as
doctors, judges, teachers, etc.lxxiii Older Goans worked in
administrative positions whereas the younger generation with
better education opted for liberal professions.lxxiv It is
observed that most Goans preferred white-collar jobs rather
than manual ones.

At present, around a thousand families of Goan origin reside
in Mozambique and many of the older ones would like to return
and settle down in Goa. Some of these Goans have attained
high positions in professional fields whereas others have not
done so well.lxxv Mozambique gained its independence in 1975
after twelve years of armed struggle.

b. Uganda

When Uganda was declared a British protectorate in 1894 there
were already Goans there.lxxvi Some had come during the
construction of the Uganda Railway and stayed on as civil
servants under the British administration. The law-abiding
character of the Goan community stood out remarkably.lxxvii
More Goans arrived in Kampala, Uganda in 1900' and
distinguished themselves in the field of sports and helped in
the development of sporting activities and musical
entertainment through the Goan Institute of Kampala.

In 1960, events in Uganda gave cause for concern, forcing
some to migrate to the West and others to return to Goa.
Goans, being industrious and peace-loving, played an
important role in the civil society and economic development
of Uganda. In East Africa, they earned the commendation of
high officers of the British Empire and lofty appreciation
from various governors.lxxviii Uganda became independent in
1960.

c. Tanganyika

Estimates show that 7,000 Goans resided in Tanganyika before
its independence in 1961, of which about 15 per cent still
remain in Tanzania, mostly in Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar, Arusha
and Mwanza. The majority returned to India, many from
Zanzibar moved to the 29 Gulf but a significant number went
to Canada, the United Kingdom, the USA, Australia, New
Zealand, Sweden and elsewhere. Even after the independence of
Tanganyika, many Goans continued to work in foreign
commercial banks until they were nationalised by President
Julius Nyerere. With the banks nationalised and the civil
service not really attractive, more and more Goans moved into
the private sector.

Goans in Dar es Salaam (and other towns) owned bars,
bakeries, clothing and tailoring shops, musical instrument
stores, butcheries, 'soda factories', etc., and contributed
considerably to photography business.lxxix The two former
British colonies, the United Republic of Tanganyika and
Zanzibar decided to unite in 1964, and soon after, in the
same year, it was renamed as the United Republic of Tanzania.

d. Kenya

The recorded history of Goans in Kenya goes as far back as
1865 with the arrival and establishment of Goan business
houses in Mombassa, but at the turn of the century the influx
increased. They arrived as sailors, cooks, tailors, railway
employees and clerks. Their preference for white-collar jobs
led them to found institutes such as the Goan Institute,
Mombassa in 1901, the Goan Institute, Nairobi in 1905 and the
Goan Gymkhana in 1936. Magnificent churches appeared wherever
there was a small community of Goans in towns and cities of
Kenya. It is said that there were 30,000 Goans in Kenya,
largely in Nairobi, in 1956.lxxx Presently there are only
about 500 Goan families in Kenya.lxxxi The British granted
political independence to Kenya in 1963.

e. Zanzibar

There have been Goans in Zanzibar since the middle of the
nineteenth century, but the first group of Goan entrepreneurs
landed there at the turn of the twentieth century.

In olden days, Zanzibar was regarded as the principal
destination of Goans in East Africa. Goans in Zanzibar were
among the most prosperous people and held in high esteem by
the Europeans, Indians and natives for their peaceful living.
Some Goans enjoyed great popularity in the Zanzibar
Island.lxxxii Goans numbered 59 in 1873lxxxiii and roughly
869 in 1933, and they enjoyed the patronage and favours of
the Sultan of Zanzibar; many of 30 them held leading
positions in the government. At that time, the Consul and
Vice-consul of Portugal were Goans.lxxxiv

The majority of educated Goans served in the government of
Zanzibar others were employed in various commercial
enterprises; some ran their own business and the rest were
employed in various manual trades.lxxxv Goans had almost the
monopoly of all trades and professions and worked as sailors,
grocers, tailors, bakers, merchants and cooks. Because of
their integrity and dedication to work, the local government
invited a large number of Goans to join government service.
The result was that Goans who were pioneer merchants and
grocers in East Africa lost gradually their place in commerce
and trade.lxxxvi

The early sixties led to uncertainty for all Asians in
Africa, particularly in East Africa because of the imminence
of the independence of Kenya, Tanganyika and Uganda. Many
Goans living in British Africa enjoyed Portuguese nationality
but from 1961 they could opt for Indian citizenship. When
India became a member of the Commonwealth, Goans in East
Africa were allowed to register themselves as British
subjects and many availed of this option and acquired a
British passport, but some older Goans preferred to retain
their Indian citizenship because of a strong desire to retire
to Goa. Many Goans left for Britain from 1962 onwards.
Britain granted Zanzibar political independence in 1963.
Goans enjoyed a high standard of living in Africa and
generally did not think of returning to India, but the
independence of the African colonies left them with few
opportunities in Africa.lxxxvii Those without alternatives
returned to Goa. The younger generation migrated to the Gulf
countries or elsewhere. Those from the British East Africa
migrated to different English-speaking countries; those from
Mozambique and Angola left for Portugal and Brazil.lxxxviii

5. The West The Goan presence in the West is largely the
result of changes in the political and economic scenario of
Africa in the 1960s and 1970s which saw the departure of
British and Portuguese colonialism and the emergence of
independent nations.lxxxix Goans born and brought up in
Africa by virtue of having opted for the British and
Portuguese 31 nationalities found no favours with the local
governments and subsequently migrated to Britain, Portugal,
Canada, USA, Australia and New Zealand.

The expulsion of Asians from Uganda by President Idi Amin in
1972 led to many young Goans opting to settle in Canada. Most
Goans in the U.K. and Portugal came from East Africa.xc

a. Portugal

After World War II, the northern and central European
countries required specialised immigrant labour to respond to
the demands of industrialisation. Industrialisation in
Portugal started only in the 1950s, but even then it was
incapable of absorbing its entire labour force; hence it not
only had no need of recruiting labour from the colonies, but
its excess labour had to emigrate in large numbers.

One wave of emigration persisted for about a hundred years
from the second half of the nineteenth century when Goan
intellectuals migrated to Portugal for university education
in Lisbon and Coimbra and became clerics, doctors, engineers,
lawyers, magistrates, teachers, journalists, officials in the
army and navy, in the bureaucracy in Portugal or in its
colonies, and occupied high positions.xci Many settled in
Portugal but a few were attracted to the great centres of
culture and learning like England, France, Germany, Belgium,
Austria, Switzerland and Italy where they took up higher
studies. Those Goans who migrated to Portugal for higher
studies before 1961 and who eventually settled there,
belonged to certain elite families.

In 1961, Goa was liberated and integrated with India. At this
point the Goans could opt for Portuguese citizenship. A
number of Goan professionals in mid-life decided to migrate
to Portugal in the post-Liberation period; however, the
majority of them did not settle in Portugal but migrated to
the Portuguese colonies, especially Mozambique.xcii Some
elite emigrants did not encounter any initial difficulty in
getting assimilated in the new socio-economic milieu.

Until 1975, many Goans settled in Portugal consisted of
lawyers, students, etc., but from then on the number of Goans
increased significantly with the arrival of a large community
from Portugal's former colonies in Africa, who had opted for
Portuguese 32 nationality. Majority of Goans who entered
Portugal between 1974 and 1977 came from Mozambique and
Angola.xciii Civil war in the colonies, lack of job
opportunities and assured pension for government employees
caused Goans to emigrate to Portugal. These immigrants would
provide initial support to other emigrants from Goa in the
1980s.

The latest stream of emigration from Goa occurred in the
1990s. They consisted mostly of educated youth, kith and kin
of persons who once were Portuguese subjects, aspiring for
better economic opportunities and standard of living.
Migration to Portugal from the middle of 80s was partly due
to their receiving Portuguese nationality. However, since
1991, the General Consulate of Portugal in Goa facilitated
the acquisition of nationality more easily.

A study conducted in 1992, shows the presence of 11,000 Goans
in Portugal of whom 6,000 lived in the area of Lisbon. This
is indicative of a greater degree of integration of Goans
vis-?-vis other Indian communities in Portugal.xciv
Generally, Christian Goans were found in liberal professions
and administrative positions.

b. United Kingdom - London

Around the middle of the nineteenth century, increasing
numbers of Goans, consisting mostly of seamen abandoned by
their shipping masters, settled in London. Census for this
period excludes Goans and other Asians as a landlord could be
imprisoned for housing them, but there is evidence from other
sources to establish the presence of Goans in London.

With the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 ships from India
could travel to the U.K. by a shorter route. Companies such
as the British India Steam Navigation Company (BISNC), which
were already employing Goan crew in the Indian Ocean, now
hired them on voyages to London via Suez. The early Goan
settlers were eventually assimilated into the general
population of East London and ceased to exist as a distinct
community by the beginning of the twentieth century.xcv When
the African nations won their independence in early 1960s, a
significant number of Goans emigrated to the U.K. This
British Goan community came generally from the 'Old
Conquests' of Goa. 33

c. USA

The early Goan settlers in the US arrived from East Africa
around 80 years ago; they were not well educated. Those who
migrated in more recent times (say about 25 years ago) were
mostly professionals. The second generation migrant Goans
have no strong ties with Goa. Goans being multi-cultural
have adapted very easily wherever they have gone.
Guesstimates show that 5,000 Goan families lived in the USA
in the 1990s.xcvi d. Canada Emigration of Indians to Canada
was not attractive till 1947.xcvii

Although Goans started emigrating to Canada in the 1960s, it
is estimated that over 90 per cent of them arrived during the
1970s, largely from East Africa and Pakistan, and a smaller
group directly from Goa. Still more recently, there has been
an increasing number of Goans emigrating to Canada from the
Middle East countries, the majority being Christians,
consisting of skilled, semi-skilled workers and
professionals. Since Goans are not listed separately in
Canadian census data, no reliable statistics are available
regarding their population. However, it is estimated that
there are approximately 13,000 Goans in Ontario and another
10,000 in the rest of Canada.xcviii

In Toronto and Montreal informal 'village associations' serve
as friendship and support societies for both established
Goans and new arrivals. These 'village associations' came
into existence in the wake of the large-scale emigration of
Goan Christians to Bombay in the late nineteenth century. One
of the main purposes of such 'clubs' was to celebrate the
feast of the patron saints of the respective Goan villages
and thus renew the emigrants' ties with their native village.
These associations made it possible for the Goans to retain
their ethnic identity.

Goans have had the advantage of Western cultural linkages,
accumulated over four centuries, to aid them in adapting to
any new environment. Yet their desire to maintain alive their
traditions and unique culture is obvious.xcix The First
International Goan Convention in Toronto, Canada in 1988 as
well as the more recent one in 2008 in the same city, made a
spirited appeal to Goans to preserve and enhance their own
culture, heritage and social capital. 34

6. The Middle East
From the early decades of the twentieth century, Goans worked
in various capacities in Iran, Kuwait, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia,
Ethiopia, Aden, Bushire, Abadan and Basra.ci With the
establishment of the British petroleum companies in the Gulf
Countries, the Goan community increased further. There were
about 1,200 Goans in Bagdad, Basra, Abadan, Bahrain and Saudi
Arabia in 1956. Bahrain alone accounted for 400 Goans; there
were smaller Goan population in other Gulf Countries earlier
-- in Kuwait (120), Iran (250) and Saudi Arabia (350).cii
Some Goans were employed as white-collar workers while others
were employed as domestic helps.

The Gulf oil boon in the 1960s and 1970s attracted thousands
of Goans and this trend lasted until the early 1980s. Many
Goans, including the not so highly educated ones, made
fortunes by working there until the local population improved
their educational levels. The major portion of remittances to
Goa came from the Goans in the Gulf and these emigrants
invested heavily in housing and real estate.

There were 50,000 Goans in Kuwait, Dubai and Abu Dhabi in the
70s and a total of 150,000 Goans in the Gulf in 1987.ciii
Goan migration to the Middle East was never a permanent
phenomenon since the countries in that region do not grant
citizenship to foreign nationals; however, many have spent
decades there. Goans still prefer to move to those countries,
believing that a job there would be more rewarding than
employment in Goa.civ

7. Population in Goa

Demographic trends have had a major impact on the extent and
direction of migration and in Goa during the Portuguese
regime emigration and absence of replacement migration
resulted in a decline of population and of the economy.
Looking at the population censuses, we are in a position to
estimate the flow of migration.

There has been an appreciable decline in the rate of increase
of the population as shown by the census data for Goa. In
1910, the population of Goa increased by 16,444 (3.1 per
cent), in 1931 there was an increase of 48,010 (9 per cent)
in the population, while in 1940 there was an increase of
only 42,207 (7.6 per cent).

The reason for this fall in the 35 rate of increase of the
population must be sought in the higher rate of emigration
especially in the districts of Pernem and Bardez. The census
data shows that while the number of women increased by 13112,
the increase in the number of men was only 557. The
inevitable conclusion is that in many cases, the men
emigrated leaving the women behind. The economic conditions
in the country have made emigration a necessity, but although
the Christian population was smaller in number than the
Hindu, the number of Christian emigrants has been larger than
the number of Hindu emigrants. Statistics also indicate that
the population is shifting from the rural areas to urban
centres.cv

Year Total population
1850 362 744
1860 363 788
(Christians: 232 189; Hindus: 128 824; Muslims: 2775)
1870 384 429
1875 390 500
1876 388 712
1877 392 239
1900 475 513
(Males: 227.393; Females: 248.120)
1910 548 242
(According to the census of 1910 by Portuguese India
registered the absence of 57157 natives from Goa, Daman and
Diu).cvi
1914 700 000
1926 520 000
1931 500 000
1949 624 147.
1950 637 846
(Hindus: 488 741 ; Catholics: 334 021)
1960 600 000

The density of population per sq. km in Goa went up from 399
persons in 1960 to 982 in 2005. The last population census
held in March 2001 shows a population density of 13,47,668.
Goa has a low birth rate (death rate and infant mortality
too) but a high and constant influx of migrants. The State
has reached the level of replacement in population control in
the 1990's. The latest estimate of Total Fertility Rate was
just 1.77. The population of Goa in 2050 is likely to be
26.72 lakh, an estimate based on the 36 assumption that there
may be no significant change in natural growth and net
migration until then.cvii

* * *

i International migration or emigration is the process of
leaving a country or region with the objective of
settling temporarily or definitively in another country.
ii Frederick (FN) Noronha, Goanet-News, 24-08-2008.
iii The Anglo-Lusitano, "Emigration Committee's
Report", Bombay, November 25, 1933. p. 10.
iv Cunha,, J., 226.
v Ibid.
vi Mascarenhas-Keys, "Death Notices" , 84, 91-92.
vii Malheiros, 129-30.
viii Mascarenhas-Keyes, Souvenir: International Goan
Convention '88, 16-20.
ix Cunha, J., 231.
x Mendon?a.
xi Costa, Preface.
xii Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 12. In 1929,
literacy reached 15%. Cunha, J., 242.
xiii That system was abolished in 1915. Zachariah, 50. The
average term of an indentured contract was three
years in 1867. The system flourished in Tamil Nadu and
to some less extent in Kerala from the caste of
untouchables. Ibid., 53.
xiv The Anglo-Lusitano, "Goan Emigration, Scope in Angola
and Mozambique", February 2, 1952, p. 1.
xv Souvenir, International, 16-20.
xvi Cunha, J., 227.
xvii Ibid., 228.
xviii Ibid., 166.
xix Ibid., 19-20.
xx Ibid., 233.
xxi Bombay, 18.6.1929.
xxii Cunha, J., 199, 201.
xxiii Ibid., 26.
xxiv Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London. Ruth de Souza,
"Goans in New Zealand, Goa and Around the World".
xxv Pinto, 75.
xxvi Cunha, T., 39.
xxvii Gracias, 123-24.
xxviii Ibid., 126.
xxix Ibid.
xxx Souza, 133.
xxxi Costa. Goans became doctors, veterinaries,
professors, engineers, architects lawyers, magistrates,
occupied positions in the army and navy, air force and
government offices, in business, hotels, insurance companies;
they became musicians, artists, painters, sportspersons,
formed orchestras, etc.
xxxii Mascarenhas-Keyes, "Death Notices", 91-92.
xxxiii Pinto, Preface.
xxxiv Mascarenhas-Keys, Goans in London, 12.
xxxv Ibid.
xxxvi Souza, 150.
xxxvii Relat?rio, 2-3.
xxxviii The Anglo-Lusitano, "Os Emigrantes: Haja
Industrializa??o", Feb. 11, 1933, p. 4.
xxxix Ibid., "Emigrants' Problems", March 11, 1933, p.5.
xl Souza, 145.
xli Pinto, 19.
xlii Costa, 115.
xliii Pinto, 19.
xliv Relat?rio, 6.
xlv Souza, 147.
xlvi Ibid., 145.
xlvii Costa, 113.
xlviii Larsen, 267-68.
xlix The Anglo- Lusitano "Unemployment among Goans",
1933, p. 12.
l Ibid., "A Crise Economica de Goa", Oct 21, 1933, p. 4.
li The Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1878 made Goa more
dependent on British India.
lii Comiss?o.
liii Souza, 153.
liv Souvenir, International, 84.
lv Haward, 299.
lvi Souvenir, International, 84.
lvii Ezdani.
lviii Ibid.
lix Ibid.
lx Costa, 171-73.
lxi Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 12.
lxii Albuquerque, 39.
lxiii Ibid., 13.
lxiv Ibid.
lxv The Anglo-Lusitano, "The World that Goans Built", p.
2, July 12, 1952, p. 2.
lxvi Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 13.
lxvii Ibid.
lxviii Gracias, 125.
lxix The Anglo-Lusitano, "Emigrants' Problems", March
11, 1933, p. 5.
lxx In the seventeenth century the Portuguese government
leased in the region of Zambezi large tracts of
land for cultivation to the colonizers many of them Indians
for a period of three generations as a measure
to assist the Portuguese in asserting their sovereignty in
the colony. The system disappeared by the end of
the nineteenth century.
lxxi Costa, 171-73.
lxxii Relat?rio, 268.
lxxiii Malheiros, 128-29.
lxxiv Ibid., 163, 167.
lxxv Navhind Times, Panaji, June 5, 2008, Panaji,
"Eduardo's Mozambique visit aimed at boosting
relations", p. 5; Herald, Panaji, June 6, 2008, p. 4.
lxxvi Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 13.
lxxvii Souvenir, Fiftieth.
lxxviii The Anglo-Lusitano, Oct. 4, 1952, p. 6. Norman
Godinho who arrived in Uganda in 1906 rose to be
one of the biggest landlords in Kampala. He was the owner
of several buildings and played an important
part in the building of modern Kampala. Souvenir, Fiftieth.
lxxix Adolfo Mascarenhas "Goans in Tanzania Today" a
talk delivered at the Xavier Centre of Historical
Research, April 30, 2008.
lxxx Costa, 190.
lxxxi Herald, Panaji, June 6, 2008, p. 4.
lxxxii The millionaires Dr M F Albuquerque and Dr Eugene
Menezes.
lxxxiii Albuquerque, 19.
lxxxiv Balthazar D'Souza a Goan and M. F. Albuquerque
respectively.
lxxxv The Anglo-Lusitano, "The Goans in Zanzibar", Jan.
18, 1933, p. 6.
lxxxvi Ibid., "The Entebbe Goans Institute Governor's
Visit", Aug. 23, 2008, p.2.
lxxxvii Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 21.
lxxxviii Mascarenhas-Keyes, "Death Notices", 89.
lxxxix Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 18.
xc Ibid.
xci Costa, 85.
xcii Malheiros, 132.
xciii Ibid., 132.
xciv Ibid., 140-41.
xcv Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London.
xcvi The Goan Review, "US itself has abut 5000 Goan
families", March-April 1998, p. 50.
xcvii Zachariah, 64.
xcviii Wagle.
xcix Wagle.
c Souvenir: International. Reunion of Goans from across the
world.
ci Costa, 187.
cii Ibid., 188-89.
ciii Goa Today, 10.
civ The Navhind Times, "Money factor still luring Goans
Abroad" by Minoo Fernandes, Panaji, January 25,
2008, p. 1.
cv The Anglo-Lusitano, "Census of Portuguese India",
March 22, 1951, p. 1.
cvi Metahistory, 239. 63.765 natives of Portuguese India
were registered in British India.
cviiGoa's Friday Balcao, 14th July,

Bibliography

Albuquerque, Teresa, Goans in Kenya, Mumbai, Popular Offset
Printers.
Alguns Aspectos Demogr?ficos de Goa, Dam?o e Diu, 1965.
Castro, Jeronymo Os?rio de, Relat?rio Annu?rio da
Administra??o do Concelho das
Ilhas de Goa -- 1904 , , Nova Goa, Imprensa Nacional , 1904.
Comiss?o Administrativa do Fundo dos Emigrantes, Nova Goa,
Imprensa Nacional, 1936.
Costa, P.J. Peregrino da, A Expans?o do Go?s pelo Mundo,
Goa, Colec??o de Divulga?e Cultura, No. 28, 1956.
Cunha, J. J. da, Nossa Terra. Estudos Econ?micos,
Financeiros, Sociais e Internacionais,
Vol. 1, Bastor?, Tipografia Rangel, 1939.
Cunha, T. B., Goa's Freedom Struggle, Bombay, New Age
Printing Press, 1961.
Dias, Remy, "Consumption History of Estado da India:
Migration and its Impact, 1850-
1950", in Metahistory, Charles Borges and Pearson,
(Coord.), Lisbon, Nova
Vega, 2007, pp. 235-45.
Ezdani, Yvonne Vaz (ed), Songs of the Survivors, Goa, Goa
1556, 2007.
Fernandes, Avertano C., "Emigra??o Indo-Portuguesa",
offprint of Boletim da Sociedade
de Geografia de Lisboa, 1938, nos. 7 & 8.
Friday Balcao, 14 July, 2008. "Focus on Factors for Goa's
Population Growth".
Goa Today, "Call of the Gulf", Vol. XXIII, No. 2, October
1988.
Gracias, F?tima da Silva, The Many Faces of Sundorem: Women
in Goa, Panjim, Surya
Publications, 2007.
Haward, Raffat Khan, "An Urban Minority: The Goan Christian
Community in Karachi", The City in South Asia: Pre-Modern and
Modern, Kenneth Ballhatchet and Harrison (eds), Centre of
South Asian Studies, Curson Press, London, 1980, pp.
299-318.
Indo-Portuguese Association, The Fourth Annual Report 1914,
Calcutta, 1915.
Larsen, Karin , Faces of Goa, New Delhi, Gyan Publishing
House, 1998.
Malheiros, Jorge Maca?sta, Imigrantes na Regi?o de
Lisboa: Os Anos da Mudan?a,
Edi??es Lisboa, Colibri, 1996.
Mascarenhas-Keyes, Stella, "Death notices and dispersal:
International migration among
Catholic Goans", in Jeremy Eades (ed), Migrants, Workers
and the Social Order,
ASA Monographs 26, London, Tavistock Publications, 1987, pp.
82-98.
--------, Goans in London: Portrait of a Catholic Asian
Community, A Goan Association
(UK) Publication, 1979.
Mendon?a, D?lio de, Conversions and Citizenry: Goa under
Portugal, 1510-1610, New
Delhi, Concept Publishing Company, 2002.
Pinto, J. B., Goan Emigration, Pangim, Printers Boa Sorte,
1958.
Rego, A. da Silva, "Ra?zes de Goa", Offprint of
Revista do Gabinete de Estudos
Ultramarinos, Lisboa, 1956.
Relat?rio da Comiss?o de Inqu?rito ? situa??o
dos emigrantes Indo-Portugueses na
India Brit?nica Apresentado a Sua Ex.? o Governador-geral
do Estado da India, Nova Goa, Imprensa Nacional, 1931.
Souza, Robert de, Goa and the Continent of Circe, Bombay,
Wilco Publishing House, 1973.
Souvenir, Fiftieth Anniversary, Goan Institute of Kampala,
1960.
Souvenir, International Goan Convention '88, Toronto.
Wagle, N.K.,
www.multiculturalcanada.ca/ecp/content/goans.html.
Zachariah, K.C., E T Mathew and S Irudaya Rajan, Dynamics
of Migration in Kerala:
Dimensions, Differentials and Consequences, New Delhi, Orient
Longman, 2003.
K.C.Zachariah., S.Irudaya Rajan, Migration, Remittances and
Employment Short-term
trends and Long-term Implications. Working Paper 395, Centre
for Development Studies,
Trivandrum, December 2007

THIS IS AN excerpt from the Goa Migration Study, 2008. Goanet Reader
is compiled and edited by Frederick Noronha <fn at goa-india.org> Send
feedback and comments, or debate this issue via Goanet
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Permalink
EMIGRATION FROM GOA: A HISTORICAL VIEW
Excerpt from the Goa Migration Study 2008 (Goa NRI Commission)

1. Introduction

Goans have been migrating before, during and after the
colonial times. From the beginning of the sixteenth century,
Goa became the earliest territory in the non-western world
that was exposed to Western culture and values. The influence
of the new Western culture, or rather, that fusion of Eastern
and Western cultures that the Goans grew up with, encouraged
traditions of knowledge, honesty and hard work and opened to
the doors to the world to Goans, providing them with a
distinct advantage wherever they went.

The influence of Christianity, Western education and cultural
syncretism endowed the Goans with an inclusive identity and
facilitated their migration and adaptation to new and
different cultural contexts. Goans have played a very
significant part, although not often fully recognised, in the
creation of modern Indian culture in different areas of life
and art.

The Goan identity has been acknowledged as being
unique and has been appreciated universally. The opinion poll
held in Goa in 1967, during which Goans decided against
merging Goa with any other neighbouring state, speaks volumes
for the determination of the Goans in preserving their unique
cultural identity and autonomy. Their cultural identity
earned national recognition when on May 31, 1987 Goa became
the 25th state in the Republic of India.

Goans living in different parts of the world have
carved out a world of their own on the solid
foundation of their ancient culture. A significant
portion of Goa's prosperity is accounted for by
international migration.i Remittances have enabled
Goans to step up their investment in education,
real estate and housing considerably. Besides
accounting for large remittances, the migrants have
also served as unofficial ambassadors of an
inclusive and unique culture. It is obvious that
migration studies help to understand the identity
of the emigrants who, in many instances, never
returned to their country of 11 origin. The more
connected they feel to their original identity,
culture and heritage, the greater will be their
contribution to their country of origin in terms of
remittances or as unofficial ambassadors.

The long history of Goan emigrants has been captured in the
very emotional Goan song in Konkani 'Adeus Korchea Vellar'
(The Time to Say Goodbye). It conveys the sentiments of a
people who have known the price of separation from a land
that is so full of scenic beauty, so peaceful yet lacking in
employment opportunities.ii Goa was a Portuguese enclave for
over four centuries; it had clearly demarcated political
boundaries.

Naturally, migration to destinations outside Goa involved
crossing national boundaries. Obviously, any out-migration
to India before Goa was integrated into the Indian Union was
perceived as international.

Christian (Catholic) Goans had a higher geographical and
occupational mobility because of their easy adaptability to
any environment, their cultural openness and hospitable
nature. Education was a strong factor influencing emigration.

Modern life has created serious problems for the migrants as
well as concerns for the host countries and countries of
origin. Violation of human rights of migrant workers and of
their families have led governments to initiate campaigns for
informing citizens about their rights and obligations and
preparing emigrants to solve their severe problems at the
place of destination.
From the beginning of the twentieth century, nations have
been paying greater attention to the grievance and
difficulties of the emigrants. Concerns, issues and problems
of the emigrants have been debated at the national level
since suitable solutions often eluded them, except for a
perception that solutions needed to be global and
sustainable.

Several nations have embarked on scientific studies of
migration movements and its dynamics in recent decades using
new data from surveys and they claim to have greater control
over migration for enacting legislation. Attempts are being
made in initiating policies and schemes for migrants' welfare
in the sending countries and also for involving the migrants
in the development of the origin countries. In spite of the
Goan emigration spanning centuries and becoming worldwide,
the phenomenon has not yet been examined in depth. The task
is not going to be easy due to lack of reliable records. 12

The Portuguese administration of Goa was not in the
practice of registering the number of Goan
emigrants. In the years of the Great Depression,
the Portuguese Law Commission in Goa had appointed
a committee of inquiry to study the social and
economic conditions of Goans in British India and
to recommend the means for securing the wellbeing
of the migrants.

This committee received support from the civil and
ecclesiastical authorities and from the entire Goan community
which offered financial and medical assistance. As a result a
Goan Emigration Fund was created.iii The committee organised
relief work, including a subsistence allowance to the poor
Goans, and encouraged the emigrants to initiate projects back
home.

Critical issues affecting Goa were widely discussed. This
period also witnessed the beginning of a serious study of
Goan migration. Perceptions about Goan emigration abound as
do theories to explain the process of emigration itself.
Emigrants constitute a significant economic force both in the
host country and in the country of origin. Remittances by
migrants have done more to alleviate poverty rather than help
develop other sectors.

In the past, the survival and development of certain
industries critically depended on emigrants. Besides sending
regular remittances, every emigrant who returned to Goa even
for a short vacation contributed to its economy. In general,
migration brought about visible improvement to the social and
economic life of the Goans.

Traditional explanations viewed Goan emigration as
an involuntary act or as a desperate act of escape
from a hapless situation by those who looked down
upon Goa as primitive and a place where one could
do nothing do raise one's personal status. High
population density, which exerted pressure on
employment, was a major cause for migration.

There was a perception that the most able-bodied Goans
(educated or uneducated, skilled or unskilled) were forced to
regard migration as the natural course and took advantage of
it at the earliest available opportunity, except perhaps the
Hindus. Additionally, the nationalistic discourse began to
hammer a feeling into the emigrant Goans as being
'denationalised' Goans with little love for Goa.iv Goans felt
that a great number of Portuguese laws which were
particularly harsh forced the natives to emigrate.v To the
Portuguese Government in Goa, Goan emigration was inevitable
and large-scale 13 migration to British India was a necessary
economic evil, although many of them were happy to return if
job opportunities could be found in Goa.

Besides work in the moribund agricultural sector, Goa could
offer little else.

Recent studies recognise that migration involves more than
passive reactions to unfavourable economic opportunities at
home and it does not necessarily lead to a clean snapping of
ties with the country of origin. People take deliberate
measures to improve their lifestyle and that of their
relatives in other geographical locations with more
favourable labour markets. In fact, this constitutes a
determinant for the large-scale and global dispersion or
international migration of Christian Goans in recent
decades.vi

Wherever Goans have settled down, they contributed
very significantly. A major wave of migration from
Goa began in 1830, initially towards British India,
made possible by improvements of transport, the
commercial decadence of Goa and the growing demand
for labour in cities like Bombay and Pune.

The fact that the Goans were the only Westernized and
academically qualified persons that the British could count
upon, explains their recruitment to several sectors like
education, administration and health. The presence of Goans
in large numbers outside Goa can be judged by the fact that
their remittances were essential for balancing the commercial
transactions in Goa.vii

Goa, although a small place, has a vast international
diaspora. Goans have travelled during the colonial times to
almost all corners of the world, so much so that it would be
difficult to name a country without a Goan community.viii

Unfortunately, we lack reliable statistics on Goan emigration
which makes the numbers rather speculative. However, we might
venture to assert that the widening adverse balance of trade
served as an impetus to emigration. The majority of emigrants
did not have the necessary background and the Portuguese
Government did almost nothing for the prospective migrants.ix

Emigration, whether to places like Myanmar decades ago or to
the Gulf in more recent times, has come largely from the
Christian population in the State due to a range of
historical factors. Hindu Goans also migrated but they formed
a small minority in comparison with Christians. Assessment of
the positive and negative consequences of migration can
provide new insights into its impact on society as a whole
and on particular 14 categories (e.g,, migrant households).
In this chapter we attempt to make such an assessment.

2. The State of Goa (political unit)

A brief history of Goa will serve as an introduction to the
determinants and consequences of Goan migration to India and
overseas and to issues relating to migration such as
identity, adaptability and emergence of new cultural
patterns.

Goa, on the southwest coast of India, has an area of 3,701
square kilometres. The Bhojas, Mauryas, Chalukyas,
Rashtrakutas, Shilaharas, Kadambas, Yadavas, Bahmanis, the
Vijayanagar and the Bijapur dynasties ruled Goa at different
times. During ancient times, Goa was famous for its seaport
and international commercial traffic.

It is no wonder that the Goans could have had commercial
connections with the ancient cultures of Mesopotamia and the
Indus Valley. Goans traded with East Africa in the tenth
century which shows that they were truly seafarers and
intercontinental movers. Goa's global trade and traffic
increased manifold when the Portuguese captured it from the
Muslim rulers in 1510.

The city of Goa evolved into a major port of call
and as a business station between Europe and the
East. In 1530, it became the capital of the
Portuguese Eastern Empire. A unique culture, a
fusion of Eastern and Western values, Goa began to
be increasingly admired for its Indo-Portuguese
cultural and architectural characteristics from the
nineteenth century.x It remained a Portuguese
colony for about 450 years until 1961.

Many Portuguese seamen died in the tropics and so the
Christian Goans became part of the Portuguese seafaring
tradition. They sailed on Portuguese ships throughout the
Indian Ocean to the Far East, Africa, Brazil and Europe. We
come across Goans in Macao since the seventeenth century. In
1784, 150 Goan soldiers arrived in Macao to defend it.
Hindus have been somewhat reluctant to sail due to the old
religious and cultural prejudices or to the attachment to the
joint family with its traditional values. There is little
evidence to suggest that Hindu Goans migrated outside the
Indian subcontinent. 15

The intense missionary activity led the local Hindu
population to convert to Christianity. Many Hindus resisted
conversion and migrated to the neighbouring regions of
Karwar, Belgaum and Mangalore during the period of the mass
conversion movement initiated in the 1540s. Migration was
preferred to abandoning traditional religious and cultural
practices; heavy taxation was another reason for leaving the
land.xi

Reputed for its long white sandy beaches, and houses and
churches with unique architectural traits, Goa has become the
most attractive tourist destination along India's western
coast. The state of Goa has more than 1.3 million people
which include Hindus (65%), Christians (34%), and a small
community of Muslims. Before 1961, Goa had a population
comprising 42 percent of Christians, the majority living in
'Old Conquests'. At this point, we need to clarify two
concepts: the 'Old Conquests' of Goa (territories conquered
by the Portuguese from 1510 to 1543) and the 'New Conquests'
(territories contiguous to the Old Conquests which were
annexed and added to Goa in the last quarter of the
eighteenth century).

The New Conquests cover three fourths of the area
of present state of Goa and have remained
predominantly Hindu. Obviously, the Portuguese
influence on the Old Conquests has been significant
as is evident from a large Christian population.
The majority of emigrants have originated from
here. Obviously most studies on emigration have
been linked the Old Conquests (Bardez, Salcete,
Tiswadi and Mormugao).

Conversion to Christianity, Western education and Portuguese
law brought radical changes in lifestyle, including dietary
habits, attire and world view. Education, through the medium
of Portuguese language, was reserved to Christians although
not exclusively until the 1750s when more egalitarian social
reforms were introduced in Portugal and Goa.

In 1910, Portuguese law mandated a secular education and from
then on, many Hindus availed of education in the Portuguese
medium. The Portuguese established one or two schools in
every village and in the middle of the nineteenth century
they founded in the capital city of Panaji, a Lyceum where
all sciences were taught, a Medical College and a Law
College. Many intellectuals, doctors and lawyers studied
there and subsequently emigrated to other Portuguese colonies
like Mozambique, Angola and Macao.xii 16

Although the Old Conquests were densely populated,
the Portuguese did not do much to set up new
industries, and the existing ones proved inadequate
to generate sufficient employment. Consequently,
nearly one tenth of the population was forced to
migrate.

In 1930s, 70,000 Goans had migrated, out of which 55,000
migrated to British India. In 1960, on the eve of Goa's
political liberation there were 100,000 emigrants in a
population of 600,000. Surprisingly, in spite of the lack of
employment opportunities misery never prevailed in Goa. Goa
has no history of indentured labour or a system of
quasi-slavery of agricultural work force created by the
British -- as a consequence of the abolition of slavery in
the British Empire in 1834 and the shortage of workers -- for
their sugarcane and tea plantations, in other colonies.xiii 17

a. Society and Economy

The major traditional occupation was subsistence farming of
land owned jointly by the gauncars (native inhabitants) and
managed by the village communities, but soon after the
arrival of the Portuguese a system of private property was
introduced. Despite being an agrarian society only a small
percentage of the population, about 10% derived direct
sustenance from the land; scarcely 2% of the population owned
landed property, which yielded a return sufficient for the
maintenance of the owner and of his family.xiv

The agriculturists who cultivated their rice fields earned
just enough to keep themselves and their families alive. At
least 40% of the adult male population had to migrate in
order to earn a living. The population census of 1881 shows
that the number of cultivators of 'toddy' and makers of
'jaggery' (coconut confection) in the entire 'Estado da
India' (Goa, Daman and Diu) was 7,512, but from that year to
1910 the number came down to almost 4,000 (i.e., 3,512
persons had emigrated).

In contrast to the deteriorating economic conditions,
declining agricultural output and rise of population, various
international developments taking place around the middle of
the nineteenth century raised fresh hopes of employment
opportunities. The introduction of steamships reduced
distances. The military and civilian settlements of the
British in India, Burma and Middle East created a huge demand
for personnel who could meet European tastes in food, drink,
music, dress and medicine.

Christians, who had been distressed by the adverse
local conditions, took advantage of these
opportunities, unlike Hindus and Muslims, and they
worked as cooks, stewards, butlers, musicians,
tailors, ayahs (servant maids) and bakers; a few
worked as pharmacists, clerks, doctors and nurses.
The honesty and hard work demonstrated by the Goans
stood them in good stead and the British officials
and commercial companies began preferring them as
their employees.

Early migrants rarely brought their families along with them
and many of those who came to British India stayed at the
famed residential clubs for workers ('Coors') founded by
Goans as a support structure for migrants.xv From the 1920s
the Portuguese government began levying an 'emigration tax'
on every Goan intending to leave Goa in search of
employment.xvi In 1933, an 'emigration tax' of 18 10-12
'tangas' (Rs 1.00) per person brought in an annual revenue of
Rs 60,000.00.

There was an agitation against that tax which was,
interestingly, also imposed on Goan emigrants returning home.
Moreover the Portuguese government introduced a 'military
tax' to be paid before a Goan's departure from Goa to seek
employment elsewhere despite the evident fact that the
emigrant contributed substantially to the Goan economy
through remittances.

Emigrants had to pay a tax on their property in Goa
which forced many to invest outside Goa. Around
this time when entire families emigrated
permanently they preferred to sell their ancestral
properties in Goa.

Thus important Goan settlements appeared in Santa Cruz in
Mumbai, Calcutta, Karachi, Aden, etc.xvii In the 1920s,
emigration to British India was on the increase but the
thenworld economic crisis forced many to return to Goa.xviii

In 1928, the emigrants had sent home remittances to the tune
of Rs. 134.25 lakh. The remittances enabled the emigrants'
families to maintain a high standard of living as they could
pay for luxury goods, like silk clothing and fine cotton,
wines, liqueur, beer and cigars.xix Goa owed much to the
emigrants whose remittances were responsible for covering the
state's annual deficit of Rs. 138 lakh.xx According to
official statistics on import/export as reported in the
newspaper Times of India,xxi exports for 1928 was Rs. 46 lakh
and imports, Rs.184 lakh, or four times more than exports.xxii

As living in Goa became more expensive, emigration to British
India increased. The Portuguese government encouraged
migration and the British welcomed it.xxiii With the
departure of the British from India in 1947, Goans who were
employed in considerable numbers in British firms lost their
jobs which resulted in their return home in 1948-59.xxiv

Further, the prohibition of liquor led to the closing down of
many hotels and restaurants owned or staffed by Goans.
Suitable employment was scarce and even the educated Goans
experienced great difficult in securing jobs in the
Government. Earlier, British East Africa had attracted a
large number of Goans, but the immigration laws in course of
time became severe and work permits were not easily
available.

Angola and Mozambique opened their labour markets to skilled
and unskilled emigrants. Nevertheless, many continued to
migrate to Belgaum, Pune and Bombay to educate their children
in English medium schools and colleges. 19

With a stagnant Goan economy, Goans looked outwards for work.
Moreover, most of the communities like the Gawdas and Kunbis
(original inhabitants of Goa) as well as several other
communities of agriculturists gave up their farming
activities and shifted to construction-related sectors as
agriculture could not offer enough returns. Moreover, some
held work on the farm in low esteem.

The constant increase in tax on the coconut produce
caused the emigration of many tillers to British
India. The discovery of iron ore and manganese
resources in Goa in the 1950s provided some relief,
but even that did not prevent considerable
emigration. After the liberation of Goa in 1961
further emigration occurred. The tourism industry
in the 70s provided a huge relief.

The mining industry and the accompanying alluring incentives
created acute problems like scarcity of labour for
agriculture. The wages which labourers were offered in the
mines were twice as much as the wages paid for working in the
fields or palm groves in the villages. The labourer could not
resist the offer. The mass departure of labour to the mining
sector was unstoppable, creating fears of shortage of labour
for the rice fields and palm trees. The government persuaded
the mine owners to use machinery in order to minimise damage
to agriculture.

Emigration was held responsible for the dwindling of
agriculture and industry, so also for many other misfortunes
of Goa.xxv Emigration slowed down the economic progress of
Goa. But restrictions on exports due to tariff barriers
reduced the country's productivity. Emigration rose due to
the scarcity of work, lack of industries and the
disproportion between wages and cost of living caused by the
government's policy of high customs duties.xxvi Sadly, Goan
emigrants contributed to foreign lands at the cost of their own.

b. Female Migration

Women rarely accompanied their migrant husbands. However, the
migration of Goan women to the neighbouring states is not a
recent phenomenon though there are no statistics to show the
flow of female migration. Female migration to British India
and Africa began in the first half of the twentieth century,
and to other parts of world from 1961. Some migrated due to
the high cost of living in Goa and a few others, to further
their studies. Goan women in Africa and India took up jobs of
teachers, clerks, secretaries, typists, nurses, and worked in
factories owned by the rich British and Parsi 20 families.

Their standard of living was much higher than that
of most of their counterparts in Goa.xxvii The fact
that they were absorbed in such jobs reflects the
greater independence and skills of Goan women.

Some women migrated alone, others to marry Goans, these often
settled in British India or Bombay. These women from the
poorer classes, were unskilled workers between the ages of
18-45 years from Christian and Hindu backgrounds. Women from
middle and upper classes seldom migrated except for
furthering their studies or accompanying with their husbands.
Lack of institutions of higher education in Goa led some
parents to send their children for higher studies to Bombay,
Bangalore, Pune, Belgaum and Dharwar.xxviii

Migration also had some ill effects. As reported in 1923, 510
Goan women were working as prostitutes and for this reason
the Church in Goa began discouraging migration of women.xxix
The majority of such women belonged the tradition of temple
dancing girls. Emigration might have led to some moral
degradation but the conduct of the emigrants, devotion to
work, employer and family was commendable and their services
were greatly sought after.xxx

c. Trends in Goan Emigration

Large-scale international migration from Goa took place only
during the past 170 years. Migration trends according to
destination or changing patterns could be illustrated in
chronological order as follows: British India and Asia: From
1850s, with the establishment of the railway lines and the
steam ships, the Goans, especially the Christians equipped
with English education, went mainly to Bombay and also to
Pune, Dharwar and Calcutta, and many, by their own efforts
and competence, occupied important positions.xxxi

Some chose to travel to Karachi, others to the east across
mainland India to ports like Madras and Calcutta and thence
From the early decades of the twentieth century, Goans began
settling down mainly in Portuguese and British colonies in
East Africa. Europe and America: Considerable emigration
took place to these regions after World War II. 21

Gulf Countries: This region became the main destination for
Goans with the discovery of oil in 1970s.

Destinations were determined mostly by economic factors such
as opportunities for employment or labour shortage.
Immigration laws were another major determinant. But the
choice of destination could also be influenced by contacts --
relatives and friends or acquaintances who had migrated
earlier. Clubs and associations sprang up to provide cheap
accommodation to the newly arrived migrants. Goans generally
migrated on the strengths of personal contacts, with no
government sponsorship or church support.xxxii

3. British India - Asia

Goans began working for the British when the naval fleet of
the British Indian government was stationed in Goa between
1797 and 1813, in anticipation of an attack by the French
(which never took place) on the British Indian Possessions.
The British naval personnel recruited Christian Goans to work
for them because of the latter's western penchant which
pleased the British. When the British fleet withdrew from Goa
and established stations in Bombay, Karachi, Madras, Calcutta
and Singapore their Goan staff followed them.xxxiii

Migration of Goans to British India continued throughout the
early part of the nineteenth century, but it was since the
middle of the century that a significant flow of migration
took place. Immediately after the Indian Mutiny in 1857, the
British reasserted their power with the proclamation by Queen
Victoria of the takeover of the Indian affairs by the British
Crown. The British then began setting up a vast railway
network for the quick movement of troops.

The Goans poured out of Goa and got jobs on the
Great Indian Peninsula Railway and the Bombay
Baroda and Central Indian Railway. The construction
of the Western Indian Portuguese railways in the
late nineteenth century provided additional impetus
for the Goans from the Old Conquests to migrate,
and subsequently they settled in large numbers in
Hubli, Belgaum, Mumbai and Pune.xxxiv

The Portuguese government opened English medium schools in
Bardez and Salcete to prepare the Goan emigrants, so much so
that there were more such schools than 22 Portuguese ones.
Moreover parents sent their wards to the neighbouring cities
of Pune, Belgaum, Mumbai and Bangalore since life there was
cheaper and English education was more advantageous.xxxv

In 1911, the census of British India registered
636,75 individuals born in Portuguese India.
Excess of population in Goa, poor management of
agriculture and absence of industries produced
waves of migration.

In 1919, Goans settled in Bengal (1,000) and Calcutta
(800).xxxvi In 1931, Goa had a population of 500,000. Around
55,000 to 60,000 people, mostly from the Old Conquests,
hacked a living in British India. Spread throughout India
they formed prominent groups in Bombay (45000), Karachi
(3,500), Calcutta (1,000), Rangoon (800) and of these only
7,500 were Hindus and Muslims.xxxvii In the same year,
emigration increased since the emigrants moved with their
families with the intention of settling down especially in
Bombay and Karachi. In 1933 there were 100,000 Goan
emigrants of whom 60,000 lived in British India.xxxviii

British India ran into a serious recession in the 1930s. The
Goan Emigrants Fund Committee, organised to deal with the
crisis, through its relief measure, trained many poor,
especially women in sewing, nursing, care of infants, etc.,
and helped them to secure employment on reasonably good
wages.

Lack of training resulted in their being exploited by
unscrupulous employers. The number of educated among the
local population had increased, but they did not mind doing
any job regardless of the wage. On the other hand, the Goans
showed lack of adaptability and initiative; they waited for
clerical work and showed little interest in any other work.

Seamen, during their enforced leisure, would not
accept work in the agricultural sector. Domestic
workers were averse to working as salesperson,
likewise gardening or rearing of poultry was
abhorred.xxxix Unemployment was widespread among
the Goans in British India in 1936 and one of the
measures proposed by the Goan Emigrants Fund
Committee was to settle them on land left
uncultivated in the New Conquests due to shortage
of labour.

Despite facilities and subsidies from the government, lack of
water and failed monsoons discouraged the agriculturist
settlers. A great number had returned to Goa; others had
opted for the Gulf countries. 23

In 1938, Bombay counted 45,000 Goans, Karachi 4,500, Pune
2,500, Calcutta 1,200, Rangoon 800 and Nagpur 500, besides
smaller numbers in other centres. Of these only 8,000 were
Hindus and Muslims and the rest were Christians.xl World War
II opened up opportunities for labour and in 1947, there were
around 100,000 Goans in British India,xli of whom 10,000 were
illiterate and working in low-paid jobs as cooks and as ayahs.

Ten years later, in 1956, the number of Goans in India and
Karachi continued to be 100,000.xlii Wherever they had been,
they founded institutes, reading rooms, cultural centres,
leisure venues for social conviviality, and established
charitable associations, all of which revealed their sense of
solidarity. Celebrations of feasts of saints and patrons of
their native villages carried out with fervour and pomp speak
volumes for their attachment to tradition. Around 1958, food
grains in Goa became more expensive than in British India
compelling many Goans to migrate increasingly.xliii The Goan
migrants lived on modest salaries; the majority lived on a
monthly salary of less than Rs 100.00 in 1938.xliv

a. Bombay

Bombay belonged to the Portuguese until 1661 when it was
given to Britain as part of the dowry of Queen Catherine who
was married to Charles II of England. Since then the British
helped Goans to migrate and some families settled in
Mazagaon.

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, when Bombay was
growing as a business centre the number of Goans was already
high and in the 1950s, Bombay counted 8,000 Goans who
occupied positions in business, liberal professions and
administration, and later female emigrants of lower strata
joined the domestic labour force.xlv

Emigration increased with the economic development of the
city. During World War I, there were over 12,000 Goan seamen
in Bombay and after the war around 7,500. Goan emigration
must have increased 30 to 50 per cent between 1915-1935.xlvi
Around 12,000 Goans worked in public services in Bombay in
1956.xlvii

Hindu Brahmins, culturally and educationally more
advanced, migrated to Bombay during the early
1900s; some established jewellery shops and did
well as a community. Christians from lower
communities migrated and opened tailoring shops;
the more 24 resourceful ones opened restaurants and
guest-houses.xlviii A number of Goans improved
their lot, while many others had to struggle to
survive.

The Goan Emigrants Fund Committee, an official organisation
established in Bombay, reported serious unemployment, poorly
paid jobs and extreme poverty among the Goans. Unemployment
worsened with the arrival of labourers from other parts of
India in the 1930s who were willing to work for any wage,
while the Goans were not willing to leave Bombay or forgo the
amenities of urban life to settle in Goan villages.

Although the Goa government announced easy loans and enacted
legislation on land tenure, the Goans did not seem to be
interested in availing of these facilities.xlix They depended
absolutely on British India. Reduced exports from Goa on the
one hand and expensive imports on the other combined with the
return of emigrants to Goa who remained idle, deepened the
economic crisis.l

The employment situation in Bombay was of serious concern to
the Portuguese government in Goa, since Goa was totally
dependent on economic conditions in British India.li The
Portuguese government did not spare any effort to find
different solutions and framed policies to resolve the issue.
To alleviate the poverty of Goans in Bombay, the Goa
government sought to repatriate those with no possibility of
finding employment in Bombay. The government motivated the
expatriates to take up land for cultivation in the Sanguem
region of Goa with financial assistance from the
government.lii

The Goan community in Bombay was one of the most active in
several fields including the establishment of schools. The
city of Bombay became a place for exile and political
activity for the Goans in the second half of the nineteenth
century, when Goa experienced political uncertainty as a
result of the establishment of constitutional monarchy in
Portugal in 1820.liii

Bombay, a place to migrate to, was since the 1950s, replaced
by Bangalore, the Gulf countries, United Kingdom, United
States, Canada and Australia, these being the most popular
destinations in recent years. Bombay had become a stepping
stone for migration to different parts of the world. 25

b. Pakistan

The Goans, mostly Christians, arrived in Karachi in 1842 when
the British occupied that small fishing village.liv Despite
the social constraints imposed on them, this cohesive
minority community achieved quick success. Goans served as
clerks in government offices, in the armed forces and some
opened businesses.lv

Already a sizable number were residing in the city
in 1869 and later, from 1913, the 'coors' assisted
the working class to migrate to Pakistan. By the
turn of the century, several Goans had established
business houses of which a few became public
companies with Goans as their chief executives.
Many streets in Karachi were named after eminent Goans.

In 1947, Partition created new opportunities for qualified
Goans to occupy high positions in government services due to
the departure of the British and the Hindus.lvi However, the
formation of Pakistan in 1947, created uncertainty among the
Goans and with Goa's liberation in 1961 and its political
incorporation into the Indian Union, the Goans in Pakistan
had the links with their homeland completely severed. Many
Goans, mostly young, left Karachi. There were more than 5,000
Goans in Karachi in 1958.

c. Burma

When the Portuguese first went to Burma in the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries, they must have taken with them some
Goans but they did not settle there permanently. From the end
of the nineteenth century, Christian Goans began to migrate
to Burma or Myanmar as it is known today, but it was from the
early 20th century, that many settled in East Rangoon. Burma
always had an isolationist policy and never welcomed
foreigners till the 1980s.lvii

In 1886, King Thibaw was dethroned by the British and the
whole of Burma came under British rule. Many Goans were
transferred from the Indian Posts and Telegraphs Department
and Indian Railways (mostly from Karachi and Calcutta) to
Burma. In addition, many Goans with musical talent went to
Burma in the 1920s to provide their services to the silent
movie industry and to the flourishing cinema houses in 1930s.
Many of them stayed on as music teachers, dealers in musical
instruments and formed bands for clubs and hotels. We could
assume the existence of migratory waves of Goans to Burma 26
in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.lviii
There were 800 Goans in Rangoon in 1931.

When World War II broke out in Burma, there were no more than
a hundred Goan families living there. When the Japanese
planes bombed the city of Rangoon (Yangon) in 1941, Goan
emigrants were caught in the real life drama for survival.

Many trekked through jungles and mountains and streams amidst
great dangers and hardships back to India where they settled
in different places. Some Goans decided to stay on in Burma
during the Japanese occupation and a few others opted for
Burmese nationality. The Japanese invasion was the end of the
Goan emigration.lix

Burma became an independent republic in 1948.

4. East Africa

From as early as the sixteenth century, Goans had
helped the Portuguese to penetrate the inhospitable
territories in Africa.lx In the eighteenth century,
Goan traders settled in Mozambique and other parts
of East Africa. They participated in the trade in
ivory and gold between Goa and East Africa and
established large import-export businesses.lxi In
1921, the East Africa statistics of business listed
426 Goans.lxii

The second quarter of the nineteenth century witnessed
increasing interest and intense competition among the
European nations for laying exclusive claims on African
territories. This rivalry culminated in the Berlin Conference
(1884-85) and the British Ultimatum to Portugal (1890) meant
to regulate European colonisation and trade in Africa.
Finally, however, the African continent was divided among the
European competitors. The years following the 'Scramble of
Africa' saw a large number of emigrants assisting the
colonial nations in consolidating their claims.

Between 1890 and 1895, when the British government took over
the administration in East Africa, the policy of employing
Goans in the colonial civil service and telegraph offices was
already established. By 1890, there were 160 Goans in
Mombassa forming the backbone of the port administration.
When the British colonial government began constructing the
Uganda Railways in 1896, Goans were employed as stewards and
administrative staff for the East African Railways &
Harbours. There was however no indentured labour from
Goa.lxiii

At the turn of the century, emigration increased with the 27
expansion of British and Portuguese colonialism in Africa.
Knowledge of Portuguese and English helped the Goans.

The British India Steam Navigation Company (BISNC) had
employed Goans as clerks in their offices around the Indian
Ocean as early as 1874 and the company began relying on Goan
staff to run its offices in East Africa.lxiv On the whole,
Goans made tremendous progress in cities like Louren?o
Marques (today Maputo), Beira, Dar es Salaam, Nairobi,
Kampala, Mombassa and Zanzibar.lxv

Emigration reached a peak in the years between the World Wars
(1918 to 1939), when many Goan seamen who had served in the
Merchant or Royal Navy during the First World War moved to
East Africa with their families.lxvi With the independence of
India, many Goans employed in civil services and the army in
British India were offered jobs in East Africa by the British
government and a large number migrated between 1948 and 1959
and settled there for years until the independence of those
countries.lxvii

Goans contributed to pioneering work in the fields
of medicine, education, etc.lxviii Acute
unemployment hit Africa and Persia in 1930s forcing
hundreds of Goans to return home. The shipping
companies, always appreciative of the Goans'
performance and loyalty, began retrenching their
staff. It is pointed out that over 2000 unemployed
Goans in British East Africa had no financial
resources to return to India.lxix

a. Mozambique

Migration to Mozambique, a Portuguese colony, began in the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries but in the following
century we hear of Goan administrators, missionaries and
colonisers in control of 'Prazos da Zamb?zia'.lxx

The Portuguese colonies especially Mozambique recruited Goans
who were literate in Portuguese to work as clerks and
administrators. Some Goans became very rich and contributed
to the pacification or colonisation of local tribal chiefs
and population with their own local army in the region of
Zambezi. Others occupied high posts in the
administration.lxxi

The district administrator in Goa promoted emigration to
Mozambique. In 1897, the government appointed an Emigration
Commission (Comiss?o Protectora da Emigra??o) Mozambique
for the purpose of gathering all information regarding the
places where 28 the Goans could find employment as well as
information on salaries, and the government assisted those
who wished to migrate.lxxii Goans migrated to three major
cities: Maputo, Beira and Nampula. Maputo and Beira, regions
with a significant community, became favourite destinations
since the Goans possessed skills associated with public
institutions, administration and white collar jobs such as
doctors, judges, teachers, etc.lxxiii Older Goans worked in
administrative positions whereas the younger generation with
better education opted for liberal professions.lxxiv It is
observed that most Goans preferred white-collar jobs rather
than manual ones.

At present, around a thousand families of Goan origin reside
in Mozambique and many of the older ones would like to return
and settle down in Goa. Some of these Goans have attained
high positions in professional fields whereas others have not
done so well.lxxv Mozambique gained its independence in 1975
after twelve years of armed struggle.

b. Uganda

When Uganda was declared a British protectorate in 1894 there
were already Goans there.lxxvi Some had come during the
construction of the Uganda Railway and stayed on as civil
servants under the British administration. The law-abiding
character of the Goan community stood out remarkably.lxxvii
More Goans arrived in Kampala, Uganda in 1900' and
distinguished themselves in the field of sports and helped in
the development of sporting activities and musical
entertainment through the Goan Institute of Kampala.

In 1960, events in Uganda gave cause for concern, forcing
some to migrate to the West and others to return to Goa.
Goans, being industrious and peace-loving, played an
important role in the civil society and economic development
of Uganda. In East Africa, they earned the commendation of
high officers of the British Empire and lofty appreciation
from various governors.lxxviii Uganda became independent in
1960.

c. Tanganyika

Estimates show that 7,000 Goans resided in Tanganyika before
its independence in 1961, of which about 15 per cent still
remain in Tanzania, mostly in Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar, Arusha
and Mwanza. The majority returned to India, many from
Zanzibar moved to the 29 Gulf but a significant number went
to Canada, the United Kingdom, the USA, Australia, New
Zealand, Sweden and elsewhere. Even after the independence of
Tanganyika, many Goans continued to work in foreign
commercial banks until they were nationalised by President
Julius Nyerere. With the banks nationalised and the civil
service not really attractive, more and more Goans moved into
the private sector.

Goans in Dar es Salaam (and other towns) owned bars,
bakeries, clothing and tailoring shops, musical instrument
stores, butcheries, 'soda factories', etc., and contributed
considerably to photography business.lxxix The two former
British colonies, the United Republic of Tanganyika and
Zanzibar decided to unite in 1964, and soon after, in the
same year, it was renamed as the United Republic of Tanzania.

d. Kenya

The recorded history of Goans in Kenya goes as far back as
1865 with the arrival and establishment of Goan business
houses in Mombassa, but at the turn of the century the influx
increased. They arrived as sailors, cooks, tailors, railway
employees and clerks. Their preference for white-collar jobs
led them to found institutes such as the Goan Institute,
Mombassa in 1901, the Goan Institute, Nairobi in 1905 and the
Goan Gymkhana in 1936. Magnificent churches appeared wherever
there was a small community of Goans in towns and cities of
Kenya. It is said that there were 30,000 Goans in Kenya,
largely in Nairobi, in 1956.lxxx Presently there are only
about 500 Goan families in Kenya.lxxxi The British granted
political independence to Kenya in 1963.

e. Zanzibar

There have been Goans in Zanzibar since the middle of the
nineteenth century, but the first group of Goan entrepreneurs
landed there at the turn of the twentieth century.

In olden days, Zanzibar was regarded as the principal
destination of Goans in East Africa. Goans in Zanzibar were
among the most prosperous people and held in high esteem by
the Europeans, Indians and natives for their peaceful living.
Some Goans enjoyed great popularity in the Zanzibar
Island.lxxxii Goans numbered 59 in 1873lxxxiii and roughly
869 in 1933, and they enjoyed the patronage and favours of
the Sultan of Zanzibar; many of 30 them held leading
positions in the government. At that time, the Consul and
Vice-consul of Portugal were Goans.lxxxiv

The majority of educated Goans served in the government of
Zanzibar others were employed in various commercial
enterprises; some ran their own business and the rest were
employed in various manual trades.lxxxv Goans had almost the
monopoly of all trades and professions and worked as sailors,
grocers, tailors, bakers, merchants and cooks. Because of
their integrity and dedication to work, the local government
invited a large number of Goans to join government service.
The result was that Goans who were pioneer merchants and
grocers in East Africa lost gradually their place in commerce
and trade.lxxxvi

The early sixties led to uncertainty for all Asians in
Africa, particularly in East Africa because of the imminence
of the independence of Kenya, Tanganyika and Uganda. Many
Goans living in British Africa enjoyed Portuguese nationality
but from 1961 they could opt for Indian citizenship. When
India became a member of the Commonwealth, Goans in East
Africa were allowed to register themselves as British
subjects and many availed of this option and acquired a
British passport, but some older Goans preferred to retain
their Indian citizenship because of a strong desire to retire
to Goa. Many Goans left for Britain from 1962 onwards.
Britain granted Zanzibar political independence in 1963.
Goans enjoyed a high standard of living in Africa and
generally did not think of returning to India, but the
independence of the African colonies left them with few
opportunities in Africa.lxxxvii Those without alternatives
returned to Goa. The younger generation migrated to the Gulf
countries or elsewhere. Those from the British East Africa
migrated to different English-speaking countries; those from
Mozambique and Angola left for Portugal and Brazil.lxxxviii

5. The West The Goan presence in the West is largely the
result of changes in the political and economic scenario of
Africa in the 1960s and 1970s which saw the departure of
British and Portuguese colonialism and the emergence of
independent nations.lxxxix Goans born and brought up in
Africa by virtue of having opted for the British and
Portuguese 31 nationalities found no favours with the local
governments and subsequently migrated to Britain, Portugal,
Canada, USA, Australia and New Zealand.

The expulsion of Asians from Uganda by President Idi Amin in
1972 led to many young Goans opting to settle in Canada. Most
Goans in the U.K. and Portugal came from East Africa.xc

a. Portugal

After World War II, the northern and central European
countries required specialised immigrant labour to respond to
the demands of industrialisation. Industrialisation in
Portugal started only in the 1950s, but even then it was
incapable of absorbing its entire labour force; hence it not
only had no need of recruiting labour from the colonies, but
its excess labour had to emigrate in large numbers.

One wave of emigration persisted for about a hundred years
from the second half of the nineteenth century when Goan
intellectuals migrated to Portugal for university education
in Lisbon and Coimbra and became clerics, doctors, engineers,
lawyers, magistrates, teachers, journalists, officials in the
army and navy, in the bureaucracy in Portugal or in its
colonies, and occupied high positions.xci Many settled in
Portugal but a few were attracted to the great centres of
culture and learning like England, France, Germany, Belgium,
Austria, Switzerland and Italy where they took up higher
studies. Those Goans who migrated to Portugal for higher
studies before 1961 and who eventually settled there,
belonged to certain elite families.

In 1961, Goa was liberated and integrated with India. At this
point the Goans could opt for Portuguese citizenship. A
number of Goan professionals in mid-life decided to migrate
to Portugal in the post-Liberation period; however, the
majority of them did not settle in Portugal but migrated to
the Portuguese colonies, especially Mozambique.xcii Some
elite emigrants did not encounter any initial difficulty in
getting assimilated in the new socio-economic milieu.

Until 1975, many Goans settled in Portugal consisted of
lawyers, students, etc., but from then on the number of Goans
increased significantly with the arrival of a large community
from Portugal's former colonies in Africa, who had opted for
Portuguese 32 nationality. Majority of Goans who entered
Portugal between 1974 and 1977 came from Mozambique and
Angola.xciii Civil war in the colonies, lack of job
opportunities and assured pension for government employees
caused Goans to emigrate to Portugal. These immigrants would
provide initial support to other emigrants from Goa in the
1980s.

The latest stream of emigration from Goa occurred in the
1990s. They consisted mostly of educated youth, kith and kin
of persons who once were Portuguese subjects, aspiring for
better economic opportunities and standard of living.
Migration to Portugal from the middle of 80s was partly due
to their receiving Portuguese nationality. However, since
1991, the General Consulate of Portugal in Goa facilitated
the acquisition of nationality more easily.

A study conducted in 1992, shows the presence of 11,000 Goans
in Portugal of whom 6,000 lived in the area of Lisbon. This
is indicative of a greater degree of integration of Goans
vis-?-vis other Indian communities in Portugal.xciv
Generally, Christian Goans were found in liberal professions
and administrative positions.

b. United Kingdom - London

Around the middle of the nineteenth century, increasing
numbers of Goans, consisting mostly of seamen abandoned by
their shipping masters, settled in London. Census for this
period excludes Goans and other Asians as a landlord could be
imprisoned for housing them, but there is evidence from other
sources to establish the presence of Goans in London.

With the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 ships from India
could travel to the U.K. by a shorter route. Companies such
as the British India Steam Navigation Company (BISNC), which
were already employing Goan crew in the Indian Ocean, now
hired them on voyages to London via Suez. The early Goan
settlers were eventually assimilated into the general
population of East London and ceased to exist as a distinct
community by the beginning of the twentieth century.xcv When
the African nations won their independence in early 1960s, a
significant number of Goans emigrated to the U.K. This
British Goan community came generally from the 'Old
Conquests' of Goa. 33

c. USA

The early Goan settlers in the US arrived from East Africa
around 80 years ago; they were not well educated. Those who
migrated in more recent times (say about 25 years ago) were
mostly professionals. The second generation migrant Goans
have no strong ties with Goa. Goans being multi-cultural
have adapted very easily wherever they have gone.
Guesstimates show that 5,000 Goan families lived in the USA
in the 1990s.xcvi d. Canada Emigration of Indians to Canada
was not attractive till 1947.xcvii

Although Goans started emigrating to Canada in the 1960s, it
is estimated that over 90 per cent of them arrived during the
1970s, largely from East Africa and Pakistan, and a smaller
group directly from Goa. Still more recently, there has been
an increasing number of Goans emigrating to Canada from the
Middle East countries, the majority being Christians,
consisting of skilled, semi-skilled workers and
professionals. Since Goans are not listed separately in
Canadian census data, no reliable statistics are available
regarding their population. However, it is estimated that
there are approximately 13,000 Goans in Ontario and another
10,000 in the rest of Canada.xcviii

In Toronto and Montreal informal 'village associations' serve
as friendship and support societies for both established
Goans and new arrivals. These 'village associations' came
into existence in the wake of the large-scale emigration of
Goan Christians to Bombay in the late nineteenth century. One
of the main purposes of such 'clubs' was to celebrate the
feast of the patron saints of the respective Goan villages
and thus renew the emigrants' ties with their native village.
These associations made it possible for the Goans to retain
their ethnic identity.

Goans have had the advantage of Western cultural linkages,
accumulated over four centuries, to aid them in adapting to
any new environment. Yet their desire to maintain alive their
traditions and unique culture is obvious.xcix The First
International Goan Convention in Toronto, Canada in 1988 as
well as the more recent one in 2008 in the same city, made a
spirited appeal to Goans to preserve and enhance their own
culture, heritage and social capital. 34

6. The Middle East
From the early decades of the twentieth century, Goans worked
in various capacities in Iran, Kuwait, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia,
Ethiopia, Aden, Bushire, Abadan and Basra.ci With the
establishment of the British petroleum companies in the Gulf
Countries, the Goan community increased further. There were
about 1,200 Goans in Bagdad, Basra, Abadan, Bahrain and Saudi
Arabia in 1956. Bahrain alone accounted for 400 Goans; there
were smaller Goan population in other Gulf Countries earlier
-- in Kuwait (120), Iran (250) and Saudi Arabia (350).cii
Some Goans were employed as white-collar workers while others
were employed as domestic helps.

The Gulf oil boon in the 1960s and 1970s attracted thousands
of Goans and this trend lasted until the early 1980s. Many
Goans, including the not so highly educated ones, made
fortunes by working there until the local population improved
their educational levels. The major portion of remittances to
Goa came from the Goans in the Gulf and these emigrants
invested heavily in housing and real estate.

There were 50,000 Goans in Kuwait, Dubai and Abu Dhabi in the
70s and a total of 150,000 Goans in the Gulf in 1987.ciii
Goan migration to the Middle East was never a permanent
phenomenon since the countries in that region do not grant
citizenship to foreign nationals; however, many have spent
decades there. Goans still prefer to move to those countries,
believing that a job there would be more rewarding than
employment in Goa.civ

7. Population in Goa

Demographic trends have had a major impact on the extent and
direction of migration and in Goa during the Portuguese
regime emigration and absence of replacement migration
resulted in a decline of population and of the economy.
Looking at the population censuses, we are in a position to
estimate the flow of migration.

There has been an appreciable decline in the rate of increase
of the population as shown by the census data for Goa. In
1910, the population of Goa increased by 16,444 (3.1 per
cent), in 1931 there was an increase of 48,010 (9 per cent)
in the population, while in 1940 there was an increase of
only 42,207 (7.6 per cent).

The reason for this fall in the 35 rate of increase of the
population must be sought in the higher rate of emigration
especially in the districts of Pernem and Bardez. The census
data shows that while the number of women increased by 13112,
the increase in the number of men was only 557. The
inevitable conclusion is that in many cases, the men
emigrated leaving the women behind. The economic conditions
in the country have made emigration a necessity, but although
the Christian population was smaller in number than the
Hindu, the number of Christian emigrants has been larger than
the number of Hindu emigrants. Statistics also indicate that
the population is shifting from the rural areas to urban
centres.cv

Year Total population
1850 362 744
1860 363 788
(Christians: 232 189; Hindus: 128 824; Muslims: 2775)
1870 384 429
1875 390 500
1876 388 712
1877 392 239
1900 475 513
(Males: 227.393; Females: 248.120)
1910 548 242
(According to the census of 1910 by Portuguese India
registered the absence of 57157 natives from Goa, Daman and
Diu).cvi
1914 700 000
1926 520 000
1931 500 000
1949 624 147.
1950 637 846
(Hindus: 488 741 ; Catholics: 334 021)
1960 600 000

The density of population per sq. km in Goa went up from 399
persons in 1960 to 982 in 2005. The last population census
held in March 2001 shows a population density of 13,47,668.
Goa has a low birth rate (death rate and infant mortality
too) but a high and constant influx of migrants. The State
has reached the level of replacement in population control in
the 1990's. The latest estimate of Total Fertility Rate was
just 1.77. The population of Goa in 2050 is likely to be
26.72 lakh, an estimate based on the 36 assumption that there
may be no significant change in natural growth and net
migration until then.cvii

* * *

i International migration or emigration is the process of
leaving a country or region with the objective of
settling temporarily or definitively in another country.
ii Frederick (FN) Noronha, Goanet-News, 24-08-2008.
iii The Anglo-Lusitano, "Emigration Committee's
Report", Bombay, November 25, 1933. p. 10.
iv Cunha,, J., 226.
v Ibid.
vi Mascarenhas-Keys, "Death Notices" , 84, 91-92.
vii Malheiros, 129-30.
viii Mascarenhas-Keyes, Souvenir: International Goan
Convention '88, 16-20.
ix Cunha, J., 231.
x Mendon?a.
xi Costa, Preface.
xii Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 12. In 1929,
literacy reached 15%. Cunha, J., 242.
xiii That system was abolished in 1915. Zachariah, 50. The
average term of an indentured contract was three
years in 1867. The system flourished in Tamil Nadu and
to some less extent in Kerala from the caste of
untouchables. Ibid., 53.
xiv The Anglo-Lusitano, "Goan Emigration, Scope in Angola
and Mozambique", February 2, 1952, p. 1.
xv Souvenir, International, 16-20.
xvi Cunha, J., 227.
xvii Ibid., 228.
xviii Ibid., 166.
xix Ibid., 19-20.
xx Ibid., 233.
xxi Bombay, 18.6.1929.
xxii Cunha, J., 199, 201.
xxiii Ibid., 26.
xxiv Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London. Ruth de Souza,
"Goans in New Zealand, Goa and Around the World".
xxv Pinto, 75.
xxvi Cunha, T., 39.
xxvii Gracias, 123-24.
xxviii Ibid., 126.
xxix Ibid.
xxx Souza, 133.
xxxi Costa. Goans became doctors, veterinaries,
professors, engineers, architects lawyers, magistrates,
occupied positions in the army and navy, air force and
government offices, in business, hotels, insurance companies;
they became musicians, artists, painters, sportspersons,
formed orchestras, etc.
xxxii Mascarenhas-Keyes, "Death Notices", 91-92.
xxxiii Pinto, Preface.
xxxiv Mascarenhas-Keys, Goans in London, 12.
xxxv Ibid.
xxxvi Souza, 150.
xxxvii Relat?rio, 2-3.
xxxviii The Anglo-Lusitano, "Os Emigrantes: Haja
Industrializa??o", Feb. 11, 1933, p. 4.
xxxix Ibid., "Emigrants' Problems", March 11, 1933, p.5.
xl Souza, 145.
xli Pinto, 19.
xlii Costa, 115.
xliii Pinto, 19.
xliv Relat?rio, 6.
xlv Souza, 147.
xlvi Ibid., 145.
xlvii Costa, 113.
xlviii Larsen, 267-68.
xlix The Anglo- Lusitano "Unemployment among Goans",
1933, p. 12.
l Ibid., "A Crise Economica de Goa", Oct 21, 1933, p. 4.
li The Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1878 made Goa more
dependent on British India.
lii Comiss?o.
liii Souza, 153.
liv Souvenir, International, 84.
lv Haward, 299.
lvi Souvenir, International, 84.
lvii Ezdani.
lviii Ibid.
lix Ibid.
lx Costa, 171-73.
lxi Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 12.
lxii Albuquerque, 39.
lxiii Ibid., 13.
lxiv Ibid.
lxv The Anglo-Lusitano, "The World that Goans Built", p.
2, July 12, 1952, p. 2.
lxvi Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 13.
lxvii Ibid.
lxviii Gracias, 125.
lxix The Anglo-Lusitano, "Emigrants' Problems", March
11, 1933, p. 5.
lxx In the seventeenth century the Portuguese government
leased in the region of Zambezi large tracts of
land for cultivation to the colonizers many of them Indians
for a period of three generations as a measure
to assist the Portuguese in asserting their sovereignty in
the colony. The system disappeared by the end of
the nineteenth century.
lxxi Costa, 171-73.
lxxii Relat?rio, 268.
lxxiii Malheiros, 128-29.
lxxiv Ibid., 163, 167.
lxxv Navhind Times, Panaji, June 5, 2008, Panaji,
"Eduardo's Mozambique visit aimed at boosting
relations", p. 5; Herald, Panaji, June 6, 2008, p. 4.
lxxvi Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 13.
lxxvii Souvenir, Fiftieth.
lxxviii The Anglo-Lusitano, Oct. 4, 1952, p. 6. Norman
Godinho who arrived in Uganda in 1906 rose to be
one of the biggest landlords in Kampala. He was the owner
of several buildings and played an important
part in the building of modern Kampala. Souvenir, Fiftieth.
lxxix Adolfo Mascarenhas "Goans in Tanzania Today" a
talk delivered at the Xavier Centre of Historical
Research, April 30, 2008.
lxxx Costa, 190.
lxxxi Herald, Panaji, June 6, 2008, p. 4.
lxxxii The millionaires Dr M F Albuquerque and Dr Eugene
Menezes.
lxxxiii Albuquerque, 19.
lxxxiv Balthazar D'Souza a Goan and M. F. Albuquerque
respectively.
lxxxv The Anglo-Lusitano, "The Goans in Zanzibar", Jan.
18, 1933, p. 6.
lxxxvi Ibid., "The Entebbe Goans Institute Governor's
Visit", Aug. 23, 2008, p.2.
lxxxvii Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 21.
lxxxviii Mascarenhas-Keyes, "Death Notices", 89.
lxxxix Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 18.
xc Ibid.
xci Costa, 85.
xcii Malheiros, 132.
xciii Ibid., 132.
xciv Ibid., 140-41.
xcv Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London.
xcvi The Goan Review, "US itself has abut 5000 Goan
families", March-April 1998, p. 50.
xcvii Zachariah, 64.
xcviii Wagle.
xcix Wagle.
c Souvenir: International. Reunion of Goans from across the
world.
ci Costa, 187.
cii Ibid., 188-89.
ciii Goa Today, 10.
civ The Navhind Times, "Money factor still luring Goans
Abroad" by Minoo Fernandes, Panaji, January 25,
2008, p. 1.
cv The Anglo-Lusitano, "Census of Portuguese India",
March 22, 1951, p. 1.
cvi Metahistory, 239. 63.765 natives of Portuguese India
were registered in British India.
cviiGoa's Friday Balcao, 14th July,

Bibliography

Albuquerque, Teresa, Goans in Kenya, Mumbai, Popular Offset
Printers.
Alguns Aspectos Demogr?ficos de Goa, Dam?o e Diu, 1965.
Castro, Jeronymo Os?rio de, Relat?rio Annu?rio da
Administra??o do Concelho das
Ilhas de Goa -- 1904 , , Nova Goa, Imprensa Nacional , 1904.
Comiss?o Administrativa do Fundo dos Emigrantes, Nova Goa,
Imprensa Nacional, 1936.
Costa, P.J. Peregrino da, A Expans?o do Go?s pelo Mundo,
Goa, Colec??o de Divulga?e Cultura, No. 28, 1956.
Cunha, J. J. da, Nossa Terra. Estudos Econ?micos,
Financeiros, Sociais e Internacionais,
Vol. 1, Bastor?, Tipografia Rangel, 1939.
Cunha, T. B., Goa's Freedom Struggle, Bombay, New Age
Printing Press, 1961.
Dias, Remy, "Consumption History of Estado da India:
Migration and its Impact, 1850-
1950", in Metahistory, Charles Borges and Pearson,
(Coord.), Lisbon, Nova
Vega, 2007, pp. 235-45.
Ezdani, Yvonne Vaz (ed), Songs of the Survivors, Goa, Goa
1556, 2007.
Fernandes, Avertano C., "Emigra??o Indo-Portuguesa",
offprint of Boletim da Sociedade
de Geografia de Lisboa, 1938, nos. 7 & 8.
Friday Balcao, 14 July, 2008. "Focus on Factors for Goa's
Population Growth".
Goa Today, "Call of the Gulf", Vol. XXIII, No. 2, October
1988.
Gracias, F?tima da Silva, The Many Faces of Sundorem: Women
in Goa, Panjim, Surya
Publications, 2007.
Haward, Raffat Khan, "An Urban Minority: The Goan Christian
Community in Karachi", The City in South Asia: Pre-Modern and
Modern, Kenneth Ballhatchet and Harrison (eds), Centre of
South Asian Studies, Curson Press, London, 1980, pp.
299-318.
Indo-Portuguese Association, The Fourth Annual Report 1914,
Calcutta, 1915.
Larsen, Karin , Faces of Goa, New Delhi, Gyan Publishing
House, 1998.
Malheiros, Jorge Maca?sta, Imigrantes na Regi?o de
Lisboa: Os Anos da Mudan?a,
Edi??es Lisboa, Colibri, 1996.
Mascarenhas-Keyes, Stella, "Death notices and dispersal:
International migration among
Catholic Goans", in Jeremy Eades (ed), Migrants, Workers
and the Social Order,
ASA Monographs 26, London, Tavistock Publications, 1987, pp.
82-98.
--------, Goans in London: Portrait of a Catholic Asian
Community, A Goan Association
(UK) Publication, 1979.
Mendon?a, D?lio de, Conversions and Citizenry: Goa under
Portugal, 1510-1610, New
Delhi, Concept Publishing Company, 2002.
Pinto, J. B., Goan Emigration, Pangim, Printers Boa Sorte,
1958.
Rego, A. da Silva, "Ra?zes de Goa", Offprint of
Revista do Gabinete de Estudos
Ultramarinos, Lisboa, 1956.
Relat?rio da Comiss?o de Inqu?rito ? situa??o
dos emigrantes Indo-Portugueses na
India Brit?nica Apresentado a Sua Ex.? o Governador-geral
do Estado da India, Nova Goa, Imprensa Nacional, 1931.
Souza, Robert de, Goa and the Continent of Circe, Bombay,
Wilco Publishing House, 1973.
Souvenir, Fiftieth Anniversary, Goan Institute of Kampala,
1960.
Souvenir, International Goan Convention '88, Toronto.
Wagle, N.K.,
www.multiculturalcanada.ca/ecp/content/goans.html.
Zachariah, K.C., E T Mathew and S Irudaya Rajan, Dynamics
of Migration in Kerala:
Dimensions, Differentials and Consequences, New Delhi, Orient
Longman, 2003.
K.C.Zachariah., S.Irudaya Rajan, Migration, Remittances and
Employment Short-term
trends and Long-term Implications. Working Paper 395, Centre
for Development Studies,
Trivandrum, December 2007

THIS IS AN excerpt from the Goa Migration Study, 2008. Goanet Reader
is compiled and edited by Frederick Noronha <fn at goa-india.org> Send
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Permalink
EMIGRATION FROM GOA: A HISTORICAL VIEW
Excerpt from the Goa Migration Study 2008 (Goa NRI Commission)

1. Introduction

Goans have been migrating before, during and after the
colonial times. From the beginning of the sixteenth century,
Goa became the earliest territory in the non-western world
that was exposed to Western culture and values. The influence
of the new Western culture, or rather, that fusion of Eastern
and Western cultures that the Goans grew up with, encouraged
traditions of knowledge, honesty and hard work and opened to
the doors to the world to Goans, providing them with a
distinct advantage wherever they went.

The influence of Christianity, Western education and cultural
syncretism endowed the Goans with an inclusive identity and
facilitated their migration and adaptation to new and
different cultural contexts. Goans have played a very
significant part, although not often fully recognised, in the
creation of modern Indian culture in different areas of life
and art.

The Goan identity has been acknowledged as being
unique and has been appreciated universally. The opinion poll
held in Goa in 1967, during which Goans decided against
merging Goa with any other neighbouring state, speaks volumes
for the determination of the Goans in preserving their unique
cultural identity and autonomy. Their cultural identity
earned national recognition when on May 31, 1987 Goa became
the 25th state in the Republic of India.

Goans living in different parts of the world have
carved out a world of their own on the solid
foundation of their ancient culture. A significant
portion of Goa's prosperity is accounted for by
international migration.i Remittances have enabled
Goans to step up their investment in education,
real estate and housing considerably. Besides
accounting for large remittances, the migrants have
also served as unofficial ambassadors of an
inclusive and unique culture. It is obvious that
migration studies help to understand the identity
of the emigrants who, in many instances, never
returned to their country of 11 origin. The more
connected they feel to their original identity,
culture and heritage, the greater will be their
contribution to their country of origin in terms of
remittances or as unofficial ambassadors.

The long history of Goan emigrants has been captured in the
very emotional Goan song in Konkani 'Adeus Korchea Vellar'
(The Time to Say Goodbye). It conveys the sentiments of a
people who have known the price of separation from a land
that is so full of scenic beauty, so peaceful yet lacking in
employment opportunities.ii Goa was a Portuguese enclave for
over four centuries; it had clearly demarcated political
boundaries.

Naturally, migration to destinations outside Goa involved
crossing national boundaries. Obviously, any out-migration
to India before Goa was integrated into the Indian Union was
perceived as international.

Christian (Catholic) Goans had a higher geographical and
occupational mobility because of their easy adaptability to
any environment, their cultural openness and hospitable
nature. Education was a strong factor influencing emigration.

Modern life has created serious problems for the migrants as
well as concerns for the host countries and countries of
origin. Violation of human rights of migrant workers and of
their families have led governments to initiate campaigns for
informing citizens about their rights and obligations and
preparing emigrants to solve their severe problems at the
place of destination.
From the beginning of the twentieth century, nations have
been paying greater attention to the grievance and
difficulties of the emigrants. Concerns, issues and problems
of the emigrants have been debated at the national level
since suitable solutions often eluded them, except for a
perception that solutions needed to be global and
sustainable.

Several nations have embarked on scientific studies of
migration movements and its dynamics in recent decades using
new data from surveys and they claim to have greater control
over migration for enacting legislation. Attempts are being
made in initiating policies and schemes for migrants' welfare
in the sending countries and also for involving the migrants
in the development of the origin countries. In spite of the
Goan emigration spanning centuries and becoming worldwide,
the phenomenon has not yet been examined in depth. The task
is not going to be easy due to lack of reliable records. 12

The Portuguese administration of Goa was not in the
practice of registering the number of Goan
emigrants. In the years of the Great Depression,
the Portuguese Law Commission in Goa had appointed
a committee of inquiry to study the social and
economic conditions of Goans in British India and
to recommend the means for securing the wellbeing
of the migrants.

This committee received support from the civil and
ecclesiastical authorities and from the entire Goan community
which offered financial and medical assistance. As a result a
Goan Emigration Fund was created.iii The committee organised
relief work, including a subsistence allowance to the poor
Goans, and encouraged the emigrants to initiate projects back
home.

Critical issues affecting Goa were widely discussed. This
period also witnessed the beginning of a serious study of
Goan migration. Perceptions about Goan emigration abound as
do theories to explain the process of emigration itself.
Emigrants constitute a significant economic force both in the
host country and in the country of origin. Remittances by
migrants have done more to alleviate poverty rather than help
develop other sectors.

In the past, the survival and development of certain
industries critically depended on emigrants. Besides sending
regular remittances, every emigrant who returned to Goa even
for a short vacation contributed to its economy. In general,
migration brought about visible improvement to the social and
economic life of the Goans.

Traditional explanations viewed Goan emigration as
an involuntary act or as a desperate act of escape
from a hapless situation by those who looked down
upon Goa as primitive and a place where one could
do nothing do raise one's personal status. High
population density, which exerted pressure on
employment, was a major cause for migration.

There was a perception that the most able-bodied Goans
(educated or uneducated, skilled or unskilled) were forced to
regard migration as the natural course and took advantage of
it at the earliest available opportunity, except perhaps the
Hindus. Additionally, the nationalistic discourse began to
hammer a feeling into the emigrant Goans as being
'denationalised' Goans with little love for Goa.iv Goans felt
that a great number of Portuguese laws which were
particularly harsh forced the natives to emigrate.v To the
Portuguese Government in Goa, Goan emigration was inevitable
and large-scale 13 migration to British India was a necessary
economic evil, although many of them were happy to return if
job opportunities could be found in Goa.

Besides work in the moribund agricultural sector, Goa could
offer little else.

Recent studies recognise that migration involves more than
passive reactions to unfavourable economic opportunities at
home and it does not necessarily lead to a clean snapping of
ties with the country of origin. People take deliberate
measures to improve their lifestyle and that of their
relatives in other geographical locations with more
favourable labour markets. In fact, this constitutes a
determinant for the large-scale and global dispersion or
international migration of Christian Goans in recent
decades.vi

Wherever Goans have settled down, they contributed
very significantly. A major wave of migration from
Goa began in 1830, initially towards British India,
made possible by improvements of transport, the
commercial decadence of Goa and the growing demand
for labour in cities like Bombay and Pune.

The fact that the Goans were the only Westernized and
academically qualified persons that the British could count
upon, explains their recruitment to several sectors like
education, administration and health. The presence of Goans
in large numbers outside Goa can be judged by the fact that
their remittances were essential for balancing the commercial
transactions in Goa.vii

Goa, although a small place, has a vast international
diaspora. Goans have travelled during the colonial times to
almost all corners of the world, so much so that it would be
difficult to name a country without a Goan community.viii

Unfortunately, we lack reliable statistics on Goan emigration
which makes the numbers rather speculative. However, we might
venture to assert that the widening adverse balance of trade
served as an impetus to emigration. The majority of emigrants
did not have the necessary background and the Portuguese
Government did almost nothing for the prospective migrants.ix

Emigration, whether to places like Myanmar decades ago or to
the Gulf in more recent times, has come largely from the
Christian population in the State due to a range of
historical factors. Hindu Goans also migrated but they formed
a small minority in comparison with Christians. Assessment of
the positive and negative consequences of migration can
provide new insights into its impact on society as a whole
and on particular 14 categories (e.g,, migrant households).
In this chapter we attempt to make such an assessment.

2. The State of Goa (political unit)

A brief history of Goa will serve as an introduction to the
determinants and consequences of Goan migration to India and
overseas and to issues relating to migration such as
identity, adaptability and emergence of new cultural
patterns.

Goa, on the southwest coast of India, has an area of 3,701
square kilometres. The Bhojas, Mauryas, Chalukyas,
Rashtrakutas, Shilaharas, Kadambas, Yadavas, Bahmanis, the
Vijayanagar and the Bijapur dynasties ruled Goa at different
times. During ancient times, Goa was famous for its seaport
and international commercial traffic.

It is no wonder that the Goans could have had commercial
connections with the ancient cultures of Mesopotamia and the
Indus Valley. Goans traded with East Africa in the tenth
century which shows that they were truly seafarers and
intercontinental movers. Goa's global trade and traffic
increased manifold when the Portuguese captured it from the
Muslim rulers in 1510.

The city of Goa evolved into a major port of call
and as a business station between Europe and the
East. In 1530, it became the capital of the
Portuguese Eastern Empire. A unique culture, a
fusion of Eastern and Western values, Goa began to
be increasingly admired for its Indo-Portuguese
cultural and architectural characteristics from the
nineteenth century.x It remained a Portuguese
colony for about 450 years until 1961.

Many Portuguese seamen died in the tropics and so the
Christian Goans became part of the Portuguese seafaring
tradition. They sailed on Portuguese ships throughout the
Indian Ocean to the Far East, Africa, Brazil and Europe. We
come across Goans in Macao since the seventeenth century. In
1784, 150 Goan soldiers arrived in Macao to defend it.
Hindus have been somewhat reluctant to sail due to the old
religious and cultural prejudices or to the attachment to the
joint family with its traditional values. There is little
evidence to suggest that Hindu Goans migrated outside the
Indian subcontinent. 15

The intense missionary activity led the local Hindu
population to convert to Christianity. Many Hindus resisted
conversion and migrated to the neighbouring regions of
Karwar, Belgaum and Mangalore during the period of the mass
conversion movement initiated in the 1540s. Migration was
preferred to abandoning traditional religious and cultural
practices; heavy taxation was another reason for leaving the
land.xi

Reputed for its long white sandy beaches, and houses and
churches with unique architectural traits, Goa has become the
most attractive tourist destination along India's western
coast. The state of Goa has more than 1.3 million people
which include Hindus (65%), Christians (34%), and a small
community of Muslims. Before 1961, Goa had a population
comprising 42 percent of Christians, the majority living in
'Old Conquests'. At this point, we need to clarify two
concepts: the 'Old Conquests' of Goa (territories conquered
by the Portuguese from 1510 to 1543) and the 'New Conquests'
(territories contiguous to the Old Conquests which were
annexed and added to Goa in the last quarter of the
eighteenth century).

The New Conquests cover three fourths of the area
of present state of Goa and have remained
predominantly Hindu. Obviously, the Portuguese
influence on the Old Conquests has been significant
as is evident from a large Christian population.
The majority of emigrants have originated from
here. Obviously most studies on emigration have
been linked the Old Conquests (Bardez, Salcete,
Tiswadi and Mormugao).

Conversion to Christianity, Western education and Portuguese
law brought radical changes in lifestyle, including dietary
habits, attire and world view. Education, through the medium
of Portuguese language, was reserved to Christians although
not exclusively until the 1750s when more egalitarian social
reforms were introduced in Portugal and Goa.

In 1910, Portuguese law mandated a secular education and from
then on, many Hindus availed of education in the Portuguese
medium. The Portuguese established one or two schools in
every village and in the middle of the nineteenth century
they founded in the capital city of Panaji, a Lyceum where
all sciences were taught, a Medical College and a Law
College. Many intellectuals, doctors and lawyers studied
there and subsequently emigrated to other Portuguese colonies
like Mozambique, Angola and Macao.xii 16

Although the Old Conquests were densely populated,
the Portuguese did not do much to set up new
industries, and the existing ones proved inadequate
to generate sufficient employment. Consequently,
nearly one tenth of the population was forced to
migrate.

In 1930s, 70,000 Goans had migrated, out of which 55,000
migrated to British India. In 1960, on the eve of Goa's
political liberation there were 100,000 emigrants in a
population of 600,000. Surprisingly, in spite of the lack of
employment opportunities misery never prevailed in Goa. Goa
has no history of indentured labour or a system of
quasi-slavery of agricultural work force created by the
British -- as a consequence of the abolition of slavery in
the British Empire in 1834 and the shortage of workers -- for
their sugarcane and tea plantations, in other colonies.xiii 17

a. Society and Economy

The major traditional occupation was subsistence farming of
land owned jointly by the gauncars (native inhabitants) and
managed by the village communities, but soon after the
arrival of the Portuguese a system of private property was
introduced. Despite being an agrarian society only a small
percentage of the population, about 10% derived direct
sustenance from the land; scarcely 2% of the population owned
landed property, which yielded a return sufficient for the
maintenance of the owner and of his family.xiv

The agriculturists who cultivated their rice fields earned
just enough to keep themselves and their families alive. At
least 40% of the adult male population had to migrate in
order to earn a living. The population census of 1881 shows
that the number of cultivators of 'toddy' and makers of
'jaggery' (coconut confection) in the entire 'Estado da
India' (Goa, Daman and Diu) was 7,512, but from that year to
1910 the number came down to almost 4,000 (i.e., 3,512
persons had emigrated).

In contrast to the deteriorating economic conditions,
declining agricultural output and rise of population, various
international developments taking place around the middle of
the nineteenth century raised fresh hopes of employment
opportunities. The introduction of steamships reduced
distances. The military and civilian settlements of the
British in India, Burma and Middle East created a huge demand
for personnel who could meet European tastes in food, drink,
music, dress and medicine.

Christians, who had been distressed by the adverse
local conditions, took advantage of these
opportunities, unlike Hindus and Muslims, and they
worked as cooks, stewards, butlers, musicians,
tailors, ayahs (servant maids) and bakers; a few
worked as pharmacists, clerks, doctors and nurses.
The honesty and hard work demonstrated by the Goans
stood them in good stead and the British officials
and commercial companies began preferring them as
their employees.

Early migrants rarely brought their families along with them
and many of those who came to British India stayed at the
famed residential clubs for workers ('Coors') founded by
Goans as a support structure for migrants.xv From the 1920s
the Portuguese government began levying an 'emigration tax'
on every Goan intending to leave Goa in search of
employment.xvi In 1933, an 'emigration tax' of 18 10-12
'tangas' (Rs 1.00) per person brought in an annual revenue of
Rs 60,000.00.

There was an agitation against that tax which was,
interestingly, also imposed on Goan emigrants returning home.
Moreover the Portuguese government introduced a 'military
tax' to be paid before a Goan's departure from Goa to seek
employment elsewhere despite the evident fact that the
emigrant contributed substantially to the Goan economy
through remittances.

Emigrants had to pay a tax on their property in Goa
which forced many to invest outside Goa. Around
this time when entire families emigrated
permanently they preferred to sell their ancestral
properties in Goa.

Thus important Goan settlements appeared in Santa Cruz in
Mumbai, Calcutta, Karachi, Aden, etc.xvii In the 1920s,
emigration to British India was on the increase but the
thenworld economic crisis forced many to return to Goa.xviii

In 1928, the emigrants had sent home remittances to the tune
of Rs. 134.25 lakh. The remittances enabled the emigrants'
families to maintain a high standard of living as they could
pay for luxury goods, like silk clothing and fine cotton,
wines, liqueur, beer and cigars.xix Goa owed much to the
emigrants whose remittances were responsible for covering the
state's annual deficit of Rs. 138 lakh.xx According to
official statistics on import/export as reported in the
newspaper Times of India,xxi exports for 1928 was Rs. 46 lakh
and imports, Rs.184 lakh, or four times more than exports.xxii

As living in Goa became more expensive, emigration to British
India increased. The Portuguese government encouraged
migration and the British welcomed it.xxiii With the
departure of the British from India in 1947, Goans who were
employed in considerable numbers in British firms lost their
jobs which resulted in their return home in 1948-59.xxiv

Further, the prohibition of liquor led to the closing down of
many hotels and restaurants owned or staffed by Goans.
Suitable employment was scarce and even the educated Goans
experienced great difficult in securing jobs in the
Government. Earlier, British East Africa had attracted a
large number of Goans, but the immigration laws in course of
time became severe and work permits were not easily
available.

Angola and Mozambique opened their labour markets to skilled
and unskilled emigrants. Nevertheless, many continued to
migrate to Belgaum, Pune and Bombay to educate their children
in English medium schools and colleges. 19

With a stagnant Goan economy, Goans looked outwards for work.
Moreover, most of the communities like the Gawdas and Kunbis
(original inhabitants of Goa) as well as several other
communities of agriculturists gave up their farming
activities and shifted to construction-related sectors as
agriculture could not offer enough returns. Moreover, some
held work on the farm in low esteem.

The constant increase in tax on the coconut produce
caused the emigration of many tillers to British
India. The discovery of iron ore and manganese
resources in Goa in the 1950s provided some relief,
but even that did not prevent considerable
emigration. After the liberation of Goa in 1961
further emigration occurred. The tourism industry
in the 70s provided a huge relief.

The mining industry and the accompanying alluring incentives
created acute problems like scarcity of labour for
agriculture. The wages which labourers were offered in the
mines were twice as much as the wages paid for working in the
fields or palm groves in the villages. The labourer could not
resist the offer. The mass departure of labour to the mining
sector was unstoppable, creating fears of shortage of labour
for the rice fields and palm trees. The government persuaded
the mine owners to use machinery in order to minimise damage
to agriculture.

Emigration was held responsible for the dwindling of
agriculture and industry, so also for many other misfortunes
of Goa.xxv Emigration slowed down the economic progress of
Goa. But restrictions on exports due to tariff barriers
reduced the country's productivity. Emigration rose due to
the scarcity of work, lack of industries and the
disproportion between wages and cost of living caused by the
government's policy of high customs duties.xxvi Sadly, Goan
emigrants contributed to foreign lands at the cost of their own.

b. Female Migration

Women rarely accompanied their migrant husbands. However, the
migration of Goan women to the neighbouring states is not a
recent phenomenon though there are no statistics to show the
flow of female migration. Female migration to British India
and Africa began in the first half of the twentieth century,
and to other parts of world from 1961. Some migrated due to
the high cost of living in Goa and a few others, to further
their studies. Goan women in Africa and India took up jobs of
teachers, clerks, secretaries, typists, nurses, and worked in
factories owned by the rich British and Parsi 20 families.

Their standard of living was much higher than that
of most of their counterparts in Goa.xxvii The fact
that they were absorbed in such jobs reflects the
greater independence and skills of Goan women.

Some women migrated alone, others to marry Goans, these often
settled in British India or Bombay. These women from the
poorer classes, were unskilled workers between the ages of
18-45 years from Christian and Hindu backgrounds. Women from
middle and upper classes seldom migrated except for
furthering their studies or accompanying with their husbands.
Lack of institutions of higher education in Goa led some
parents to send their children for higher studies to Bombay,
Bangalore, Pune, Belgaum and Dharwar.xxviii

Migration also had some ill effects. As reported in 1923, 510
Goan women were working as prostitutes and for this reason
the Church in Goa began discouraging migration of women.xxix
The majority of such women belonged the tradition of temple
dancing girls. Emigration might have led to some moral
degradation but the conduct of the emigrants, devotion to
work, employer and family was commendable and their services
were greatly sought after.xxx

c. Trends in Goan Emigration

Large-scale international migration from Goa took place only
during the past 170 years. Migration trends according to
destination or changing patterns could be illustrated in
chronological order as follows: British India and Asia: From
1850s, with the establishment of the railway lines and the
steam ships, the Goans, especially the Christians equipped
with English education, went mainly to Bombay and also to
Pune, Dharwar and Calcutta, and many, by their own efforts
and competence, occupied important positions.xxxi

Some chose to travel to Karachi, others to the east across
mainland India to ports like Madras and Calcutta and thence
From the early decades of the twentieth century, Goans began
settling down mainly in Portuguese and British colonies in
East Africa. Europe and America: Considerable emigration
took place to these regions after World War II. 21

Gulf Countries: This region became the main destination for
Goans with the discovery of oil in 1970s.

Destinations were determined mostly by economic factors such
as opportunities for employment or labour shortage.
Immigration laws were another major determinant. But the
choice of destination could also be influenced by contacts --
relatives and friends or acquaintances who had migrated
earlier. Clubs and associations sprang up to provide cheap
accommodation to the newly arrived migrants. Goans generally
migrated on the strengths of personal contacts, with no
government sponsorship or church support.xxxii

3. British India - Asia

Goans began working for the British when the naval fleet of
the British Indian government was stationed in Goa between
1797 and 1813, in anticipation of an attack by the French
(which never took place) on the British Indian Possessions.
The British naval personnel recruited Christian Goans to work
for them because of the latter's western penchant which
pleased the British. When the British fleet withdrew from Goa
and established stations in Bombay, Karachi, Madras, Calcutta
and Singapore their Goan staff followed them.xxxiii

Migration of Goans to British India continued throughout the
early part of the nineteenth century, but it was since the
middle of the century that a significant flow of migration
took place. Immediately after the Indian Mutiny in 1857, the
British reasserted their power with the proclamation by Queen
Victoria of the takeover of the Indian affairs by the British
Crown. The British then began setting up a vast railway
network for the quick movement of troops.

The Goans poured out of Goa and got jobs on the
Great Indian Peninsula Railway and the Bombay
Baroda and Central Indian Railway. The construction
of the Western Indian Portuguese railways in the
late nineteenth century provided additional impetus
for the Goans from the Old Conquests to migrate,
and subsequently they settled in large numbers in
Hubli, Belgaum, Mumbai and Pune.xxxiv

The Portuguese government opened English medium schools in
Bardez and Salcete to prepare the Goan emigrants, so much so
that there were more such schools than 22 Portuguese ones.
Moreover parents sent their wards to the neighbouring cities
of Pune, Belgaum, Mumbai and Bangalore since life there was
cheaper and English education was more advantageous.xxxv

In 1911, the census of British India registered
636,75 individuals born in Portuguese India.
Excess of population in Goa, poor management of
agriculture and absence of industries produced
waves of migration.

In 1919, Goans settled in Bengal (1,000) and Calcutta
(800).xxxvi In 1931, Goa had a population of 500,000. Around
55,000 to 60,000 people, mostly from the Old Conquests,
hacked a living in British India. Spread throughout India
they formed prominent groups in Bombay (45000), Karachi
(3,500), Calcutta (1,000), Rangoon (800) and of these only
7,500 were Hindus and Muslims.xxxvii In the same year,
emigration increased since the emigrants moved with their
families with the intention of settling down especially in
Bombay and Karachi. In 1933 there were 100,000 Goan
emigrants of whom 60,000 lived in British India.xxxviii

British India ran into a serious recession in the 1930s. The
Goan Emigrants Fund Committee, organised to deal with the
crisis, through its relief measure, trained many poor,
especially women in sewing, nursing, care of infants, etc.,
and helped them to secure employment on reasonably good
wages.

Lack of training resulted in their being exploited by
unscrupulous employers. The number of educated among the
local population had increased, but they did not mind doing
any job regardless of the wage. On the other hand, the Goans
showed lack of adaptability and initiative; they waited for
clerical work and showed little interest in any other work.

Seamen, during their enforced leisure, would not
accept work in the agricultural sector. Domestic
workers were averse to working as salesperson,
likewise gardening or rearing of poultry was
abhorred.xxxix Unemployment was widespread among
the Goans in British India in 1936 and one of the
measures proposed by the Goan Emigrants Fund
Committee was to settle them on land left
uncultivated in the New Conquests due to shortage
of labour.

Despite facilities and subsidies from the government, lack of
water and failed monsoons discouraged the agriculturist
settlers. A great number had returned to Goa; others had
opted for the Gulf countries. 23

In 1938, Bombay counted 45,000 Goans, Karachi 4,500, Pune
2,500, Calcutta 1,200, Rangoon 800 and Nagpur 500, besides
smaller numbers in other centres. Of these only 8,000 were
Hindus and Muslims and the rest were Christians.xl World War
II opened up opportunities for labour and in 1947, there were
around 100,000 Goans in British India,xli of whom 10,000 were
illiterate and working in low-paid jobs as cooks and as ayahs.

Ten years later, in 1956, the number of Goans in India and
Karachi continued to be 100,000.xlii Wherever they had been,
they founded institutes, reading rooms, cultural centres,
leisure venues for social conviviality, and established
charitable associations, all of which revealed their sense of
solidarity. Celebrations of feasts of saints and patrons of
their native villages carried out with fervour and pomp speak
volumes for their attachment to tradition. Around 1958, food
grains in Goa became more expensive than in British India
compelling many Goans to migrate increasingly.xliii The Goan
migrants lived on modest salaries; the majority lived on a
monthly salary of less than Rs 100.00 in 1938.xliv

a. Bombay

Bombay belonged to the Portuguese until 1661 when it was
given to Britain as part of the dowry of Queen Catherine who
was married to Charles II of England. Since then the British
helped Goans to migrate and some families settled in
Mazagaon.

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, when Bombay was
growing as a business centre the number of Goans was already
high and in the 1950s, Bombay counted 8,000 Goans who
occupied positions in business, liberal professions and
administration, and later female emigrants of lower strata
joined the domestic labour force.xlv

Emigration increased with the economic development of the
city. During World War I, there were over 12,000 Goan seamen
in Bombay and after the war around 7,500. Goan emigration
must have increased 30 to 50 per cent between 1915-1935.xlvi
Around 12,000 Goans worked in public services in Bombay in
1956.xlvii

Hindu Brahmins, culturally and educationally more
advanced, migrated to Bombay during the early
1900s; some established jewellery shops and did
well as a community. Christians from lower
communities migrated and opened tailoring shops;
the more 24 resourceful ones opened restaurants and
guest-houses.xlviii A number of Goans improved
their lot, while many others had to struggle to
survive.

The Goan Emigrants Fund Committee, an official organisation
established in Bombay, reported serious unemployment, poorly
paid jobs and extreme poverty among the Goans. Unemployment
worsened with the arrival of labourers from other parts of
India in the 1930s who were willing to work for any wage,
while the Goans were not willing to leave Bombay or forgo the
amenities of urban life to settle in Goan villages.

Although the Goa government announced easy loans and enacted
legislation on land tenure, the Goans did not seem to be
interested in availing of these facilities.xlix They depended
absolutely on British India. Reduced exports from Goa on the
one hand and expensive imports on the other combined with the
return of emigrants to Goa who remained idle, deepened the
economic crisis.l

The employment situation in Bombay was of serious concern to
the Portuguese government in Goa, since Goa was totally
dependent on economic conditions in British India.li The
Portuguese government did not spare any effort to find
different solutions and framed policies to resolve the issue.
To alleviate the poverty of Goans in Bombay, the Goa
government sought to repatriate those with no possibility of
finding employment in Bombay. The government motivated the
expatriates to take up land for cultivation in the Sanguem
region of Goa with financial assistance from the
government.lii

The Goan community in Bombay was one of the most active in
several fields including the establishment of schools. The
city of Bombay became a place for exile and political
activity for the Goans in the second half of the nineteenth
century, when Goa experienced political uncertainty as a
result of the establishment of constitutional monarchy in
Portugal in 1820.liii

Bombay, a place to migrate to, was since the 1950s, replaced
by Bangalore, the Gulf countries, United Kingdom, United
States, Canada and Australia, these being the most popular
destinations in recent years. Bombay had become a stepping
stone for migration to different parts of the world. 25

b. Pakistan

The Goans, mostly Christians, arrived in Karachi in 1842 when
the British occupied that small fishing village.liv Despite
the social constraints imposed on them, this cohesive
minority community achieved quick success. Goans served as
clerks in government offices, in the armed forces and some
opened businesses.lv

Already a sizable number were residing in the city
in 1869 and later, from 1913, the 'coors' assisted
the working class to migrate to Pakistan. By the
turn of the century, several Goans had established
business houses of which a few became public
companies with Goans as their chief executives.
Many streets in Karachi were named after eminent Goans.

In 1947, Partition created new opportunities for qualified
Goans to occupy high positions in government services due to
the departure of the British and the Hindus.lvi However, the
formation of Pakistan in 1947, created uncertainty among the
Goans and with Goa's liberation in 1961 and its political
incorporation into the Indian Union, the Goans in Pakistan
had the links with their homeland completely severed. Many
Goans, mostly young, left Karachi. There were more than 5,000
Goans in Karachi in 1958.

c. Burma

When the Portuguese first went to Burma in the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries, they must have taken with them some
Goans but they did not settle there permanently. From the end
of the nineteenth century, Christian Goans began to migrate
to Burma or Myanmar as it is known today, but it was from the
early 20th century, that many settled in East Rangoon. Burma
always had an isolationist policy and never welcomed
foreigners till the 1980s.lvii

In 1886, King Thibaw was dethroned by the British and the
whole of Burma came under British rule. Many Goans were
transferred from the Indian Posts and Telegraphs Department
and Indian Railways (mostly from Karachi and Calcutta) to
Burma. In addition, many Goans with musical talent went to
Burma in the 1920s to provide their services to the silent
movie industry and to the flourishing cinema houses in 1930s.
Many of them stayed on as music teachers, dealers in musical
instruments and formed bands for clubs and hotels. We could
assume the existence of migratory waves of Goans to Burma 26
in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.lviii
There were 800 Goans in Rangoon in 1931.

When World War II broke out in Burma, there were no more than
a hundred Goan families living there. When the Japanese
planes bombed the city of Rangoon (Yangon) in 1941, Goan
emigrants were caught in the real life drama for survival.

Many trekked through jungles and mountains and streams amidst
great dangers and hardships back to India where they settled
in different places. Some Goans decided to stay on in Burma
during the Japanese occupation and a few others opted for
Burmese nationality. The Japanese invasion was the end of the
Goan emigration.lix

Burma became an independent republic in 1948.

4. East Africa

From as early as the sixteenth century, Goans had
helped the Portuguese to penetrate the inhospitable
territories in Africa.lx In the eighteenth century,
Goan traders settled in Mozambique and other parts
of East Africa. They participated in the trade in
ivory and gold between Goa and East Africa and
established large import-export businesses.lxi In
1921, the East Africa statistics of business listed
426 Goans.lxii

The second quarter of the nineteenth century witnessed
increasing interest and intense competition among the
European nations for laying exclusive claims on African
territories. This rivalry culminated in the Berlin Conference
(1884-85) and the British Ultimatum to Portugal (1890) meant
to regulate European colonisation and trade in Africa.
Finally, however, the African continent was divided among the
European competitors. The years following the 'Scramble of
Africa' saw a large number of emigrants assisting the
colonial nations in consolidating their claims.

Between 1890 and 1895, when the British government took over
the administration in East Africa, the policy of employing
Goans in the colonial civil service and telegraph offices was
already established. By 1890, there were 160 Goans in
Mombassa forming the backbone of the port administration.
When the British colonial government began constructing the
Uganda Railways in 1896, Goans were employed as stewards and
administrative staff for the East African Railways &
Harbours. There was however no indentured labour from
Goa.lxiii

At the turn of the century, emigration increased with the 27
expansion of British and Portuguese colonialism in Africa.
Knowledge of Portuguese and English helped the Goans.

The British India Steam Navigation Company (BISNC) had
employed Goans as clerks in their offices around the Indian
Ocean as early as 1874 and the company began relying on Goan
staff to run its offices in East Africa.lxiv On the whole,
Goans made tremendous progress in cities like Louren?o
Marques (today Maputo), Beira, Dar es Salaam, Nairobi,
Kampala, Mombassa and Zanzibar.lxv

Emigration reached a peak in the years between the World Wars
(1918 to 1939), when many Goan seamen who had served in the
Merchant or Royal Navy during the First World War moved to
East Africa with their families.lxvi With the independence of
India, many Goans employed in civil services and the army in
British India were offered jobs in East Africa by the British
government and a large number migrated between 1948 and 1959
and settled there for years until the independence of those
countries.lxvii

Goans contributed to pioneering work in the fields
of medicine, education, etc.lxviii Acute
unemployment hit Africa and Persia in 1930s forcing
hundreds of Goans to return home. The shipping
companies, always appreciative of the Goans'
performance and loyalty, began retrenching their
staff. It is pointed out that over 2000 unemployed
Goans in British East Africa had no financial
resources to return to India.lxix

a. Mozambique

Migration to Mozambique, a Portuguese colony, began in the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries but in the following
century we hear of Goan administrators, missionaries and
colonisers in control of 'Prazos da Zamb?zia'.lxx

The Portuguese colonies especially Mozambique recruited Goans
who were literate in Portuguese to work as clerks and
administrators. Some Goans became very rich and contributed
to the pacification or colonisation of local tribal chiefs
and population with their own local army in the region of
Zambezi. Others occupied high posts in the
administration.lxxi

The district administrator in Goa promoted emigration to
Mozambique. In 1897, the government appointed an Emigration
Commission (Comiss?o Protectora da Emigra??o) Mozambique
for the purpose of gathering all information regarding the
places where 28 the Goans could find employment as well as
information on salaries, and the government assisted those
who wished to migrate.lxxii Goans migrated to three major
cities: Maputo, Beira and Nampula. Maputo and Beira, regions
with a significant community, became favourite destinations
since the Goans possessed skills associated with public
institutions, administration and white collar jobs such as
doctors, judges, teachers, etc.lxxiii Older Goans worked in
administrative positions whereas the younger generation with
better education opted for liberal professions.lxxiv It is
observed that most Goans preferred white-collar jobs rather
than manual ones.

At present, around a thousand families of Goan origin reside
in Mozambique and many of the older ones would like to return
and settle down in Goa. Some of these Goans have attained
high positions in professional fields whereas others have not
done so well.lxxv Mozambique gained its independence in 1975
after twelve years of armed struggle.

b. Uganda

When Uganda was declared a British protectorate in 1894 there
were already Goans there.lxxvi Some had come during the
construction of the Uganda Railway and stayed on as civil
servants under the British administration. The law-abiding
character of the Goan community stood out remarkably.lxxvii
More Goans arrived in Kampala, Uganda in 1900' and
distinguished themselves in the field of sports and helped in
the development of sporting activities and musical
entertainment through the Goan Institute of Kampala.

In 1960, events in Uganda gave cause for concern, forcing
some to migrate to the West and others to return to Goa.
Goans, being industrious and peace-loving, played an
important role in the civil society and economic development
of Uganda. In East Africa, they earned the commendation of
high officers of the British Empire and lofty appreciation
from various governors.lxxviii Uganda became independent in
1960.

c. Tanganyika

Estimates show that 7,000 Goans resided in Tanganyika before
its independence in 1961, of which about 15 per cent still
remain in Tanzania, mostly in Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar, Arusha
and Mwanza. The majority returned to India, many from
Zanzibar moved to the 29 Gulf but a significant number went
to Canada, the United Kingdom, the USA, Australia, New
Zealand, Sweden and elsewhere. Even after the independence of
Tanganyika, many Goans continued to work in foreign
commercial banks until they were nationalised by President
Julius Nyerere. With the banks nationalised and the civil
service not really attractive, more and more Goans moved into
the private sector.

Goans in Dar es Salaam (and other towns) owned bars,
bakeries, clothing and tailoring shops, musical instrument
stores, butcheries, 'soda factories', etc., and contributed
considerably to photography business.lxxix The two former
British colonies, the United Republic of Tanganyika and
Zanzibar decided to unite in 1964, and soon after, in the
same year, it was renamed as the United Republic of Tanzania.

d. Kenya

The recorded history of Goans in Kenya goes as far back as
1865 with the arrival and establishment of Goan business
houses in Mombassa, but at the turn of the century the influx
increased. They arrived as sailors, cooks, tailors, railway
employees and clerks. Their preference for white-collar jobs
led them to found institutes such as the Goan Institute,
Mombassa in 1901, the Goan Institute, Nairobi in 1905 and the
Goan Gymkhana in 1936. Magnificent churches appeared wherever
there was a small community of Goans in towns and cities of
Kenya. It is said that there were 30,000 Goans in Kenya,
largely in Nairobi, in 1956.lxxx Presently there are only
about 500 Goan families in Kenya.lxxxi The British granted
political independence to Kenya in 1963.

e. Zanzibar

There have been Goans in Zanzibar since the middle of the
nineteenth century, but the first group of Goan entrepreneurs
landed there at the turn of the twentieth century.

In olden days, Zanzibar was regarded as the principal
destination of Goans in East Africa. Goans in Zanzibar were
among the most prosperous people and held in high esteem by
the Europeans, Indians and natives for their peaceful living.
Some Goans enjoyed great popularity in the Zanzibar
Island.lxxxii Goans numbered 59 in 1873lxxxiii and roughly
869 in 1933, and they enjoyed the patronage and favours of
the Sultan of Zanzibar; many of 30 them held leading
positions in the government. At that time, the Consul and
Vice-consul of Portugal were Goans.lxxxiv

The majority of educated Goans served in the government of
Zanzibar others were employed in various commercial
enterprises; some ran their own business and the rest were
employed in various manual trades.lxxxv Goans had almost the
monopoly of all trades and professions and worked as sailors,
grocers, tailors, bakers, merchants and cooks. Because of
their integrity and dedication to work, the local government
invited a large number of Goans to join government service.
The result was that Goans who were pioneer merchants and
grocers in East Africa lost gradually their place in commerce
and trade.lxxxvi

The early sixties led to uncertainty for all Asians in
Africa, particularly in East Africa because of the imminence
of the independence of Kenya, Tanganyika and Uganda. Many
Goans living in British Africa enjoyed Portuguese nationality
but from 1961 they could opt for Indian citizenship. When
India became a member of the Commonwealth, Goans in East
Africa were allowed to register themselves as British
subjects and many availed of this option and acquired a
British passport, but some older Goans preferred to retain
their Indian citizenship because of a strong desire to retire
to Goa. Many Goans left for Britain from 1962 onwards.
Britain granted Zanzibar political independence in 1963.
Goans enjoyed a high standard of living in Africa and
generally did not think of returning to India, but the
independence of the African colonies left them with few
opportunities in Africa.lxxxvii Those without alternatives
returned to Goa. The younger generation migrated to the Gulf
countries or elsewhere. Those from the British East Africa
migrated to different English-speaking countries; those from
Mozambique and Angola left for Portugal and Brazil.lxxxviii

5. The West The Goan presence in the West is largely the
result of changes in the political and economic scenario of
Africa in the 1960s and 1970s which saw the departure of
British and Portuguese colonialism and the emergence of
independent nations.lxxxix Goans born and brought up in
Africa by virtue of having opted for the British and
Portuguese 31 nationalities found no favours with the local
governments and subsequently migrated to Britain, Portugal,
Canada, USA, Australia and New Zealand.

The expulsion of Asians from Uganda by President Idi Amin in
1972 led to many young Goans opting to settle in Canada. Most
Goans in the U.K. and Portugal came from East Africa.xc

a. Portugal

After World War II, the northern and central European
countries required specialised immigrant labour to respond to
the demands of industrialisation. Industrialisation in
Portugal started only in the 1950s, but even then it was
incapable of absorbing its entire labour force; hence it not
only had no need of recruiting labour from the colonies, but
its excess labour had to emigrate in large numbers.

One wave of emigration persisted for about a hundred years
from the second half of the nineteenth century when Goan
intellectuals migrated to Portugal for university education
in Lisbon and Coimbra and became clerics, doctors, engineers,
lawyers, magistrates, teachers, journalists, officials in the
army and navy, in the bureaucracy in Portugal or in its
colonies, and occupied high positions.xci Many settled in
Portugal but a few were attracted to the great centres of
culture and learning like England, France, Germany, Belgium,
Austria, Switzerland and Italy where they took up higher
studies. Those Goans who migrated to Portugal for higher
studies before 1961 and who eventually settled there,
belonged to certain elite families.

In 1961, Goa was liberated and integrated with India. At this
point the Goans could opt for Portuguese citizenship. A
number of Goan professionals in mid-life decided to migrate
to Portugal in the post-Liberation period; however, the
majority of them did not settle in Portugal but migrated to
the Portuguese colonies, especially Mozambique.xcii Some
elite emigrants did not encounter any initial difficulty in
getting assimilated in the new socio-economic milieu.

Until 1975, many Goans settled in Portugal consisted of
lawyers, students, etc., but from then on the number of Goans
increased significantly with the arrival of a large community
from Portugal's former colonies in Africa, who had opted for
Portuguese 32 nationality. Majority of Goans who entered
Portugal between 1974 and 1977 came from Mozambique and
Angola.xciii Civil war in the colonies, lack of job
opportunities and assured pension for government employees
caused Goans to emigrate to Portugal. These immigrants would
provide initial support to other emigrants from Goa in the
1980s.

The latest stream of emigration from Goa occurred in the
1990s. They consisted mostly of educated youth, kith and kin
of persons who once were Portuguese subjects, aspiring for
better economic opportunities and standard of living.
Migration to Portugal from the middle of 80s was partly due
to their receiving Portuguese nationality. However, since
1991, the General Consulate of Portugal in Goa facilitated
the acquisition of nationality more easily.

A study conducted in 1992, shows the presence of 11,000 Goans
in Portugal of whom 6,000 lived in the area of Lisbon. This
is indicative of a greater degree of integration of Goans
vis-?-vis other Indian communities in Portugal.xciv
Generally, Christian Goans were found in liberal professions
and administrative positions.

b. United Kingdom - London

Around the middle of the nineteenth century, increasing
numbers of Goans, consisting mostly of seamen abandoned by
their shipping masters, settled in London. Census for this
period excludes Goans and other Asians as a landlord could be
imprisoned for housing them, but there is evidence from other
sources to establish the presence of Goans in London.

With the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 ships from India
could travel to the U.K. by a shorter route. Companies such
as the British India Steam Navigation Company (BISNC), which
were already employing Goan crew in the Indian Ocean, now
hired them on voyages to London via Suez. The early Goan
settlers were eventually assimilated into the general
population of East London and ceased to exist as a distinct
community by the beginning of the twentieth century.xcv When
the African nations won their independence in early 1960s, a
significant number of Goans emigrated to the U.K. This
British Goan community came generally from the 'Old
Conquests' of Goa. 33

c. USA

The early Goan settlers in the US arrived from East Africa
around 80 years ago; they were not well educated. Those who
migrated in more recent times (say about 25 years ago) were
mostly professionals. The second generation migrant Goans
have no strong ties with Goa. Goans being multi-cultural
have adapted very easily wherever they have gone.
Guesstimates show that 5,000 Goan families lived in the USA
in the 1990s.xcvi d. Canada Emigration of Indians to Canada
was not attractive till 1947.xcvii

Although Goans started emigrating to Canada in the 1960s, it
is estimated that over 90 per cent of them arrived during the
1970s, largely from East Africa and Pakistan, and a smaller
group directly from Goa. Still more recently, there has been
an increasing number of Goans emigrating to Canada from the
Middle East countries, the majority being Christians,
consisting of skilled, semi-skilled workers and
professionals. Since Goans are not listed separately in
Canadian census data, no reliable statistics are available
regarding their population. However, it is estimated that
there are approximately 13,000 Goans in Ontario and another
10,000 in the rest of Canada.xcviii

In Toronto and Montreal informal 'village associations' serve
as friendship and support societies for both established
Goans and new arrivals. These 'village associations' came
into existence in the wake of the large-scale emigration of
Goan Christians to Bombay in the late nineteenth century. One
of the main purposes of such 'clubs' was to celebrate the
feast of the patron saints of the respective Goan villages
and thus renew the emigrants' ties with their native village.
These associations made it possible for the Goans to retain
their ethnic identity.

Goans have had the advantage of Western cultural linkages,
accumulated over four centuries, to aid them in adapting to
any new environment. Yet their desire to maintain alive their
traditions and unique culture is obvious.xcix The First
International Goan Convention in Toronto, Canada in 1988 as
well as the more recent one in 2008 in the same city, made a
spirited appeal to Goans to preserve and enhance their own
culture, heritage and social capital. 34

6. The Middle East
From the early decades of the twentieth century, Goans worked
in various capacities in Iran, Kuwait, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia,
Ethiopia, Aden, Bushire, Abadan and Basra.ci With the
establishment of the British petroleum companies in the Gulf
Countries, the Goan community increased further. There were
about 1,200 Goans in Bagdad, Basra, Abadan, Bahrain and Saudi
Arabia in 1956. Bahrain alone accounted for 400 Goans; there
were smaller Goan population in other Gulf Countries earlier
-- in Kuwait (120), Iran (250) and Saudi Arabia (350).cii
Some Goans were employed as white-collar workers while others
were employed as domestic helps.

The Gulf oil boon in the 1960s and 1970s attracted thousands
of Goans and this trend lasted until the early 1980s. Many
Goans, including the not so highly educated ones, made
fortunes by working there until the local population improved
their educational levels. The major portion of remittances to
Goa came from the Goans in the Gulf and these emigrants
invested heavily in housing and real estate.

There were 50,000 Goans in Kuwait, Dubai and Abu Dhabi in the
70s and a total of 150,000 Goans in the Gulf in 1987.ciii
Goan migration to the Middle East was never a permanent
phenomenon since the countries in that region do not grant
citizenship to foreign nationals; however, many have spent
decades there. Goans still prefer to move to those countries,
believing that a job there would be more rewarding than
employment in Goa.civ

7. Population in Goa

Demographic trends have had a major impact on the extent and
direction of migration and in Goa during the Portuguese
regime emigration and absence of replacement migration
resulted in a decline of population and of the economy.
Looking at the population censuses, we are in a position to
estimate the flow of migration.

There has been an appreciable decline in the rate of increase
of the population as shown by the census data for Goa. In
1910, the population of Goa increased by 16,444 (3.1 per
cent), in 1931 there was an increase of 48,010 (9 per cent)
in the population, while in 1940 there was an increase of
only 42,207 (7.6 per cent).

The reason for this fall in the 35 rate of increase of the
population must be sought in the higher rate of emigration
especially in the districts of Pernem and Bardez. The census
data shows that while the number of women increased by 13112,
the increase in the number of men was only 557. The
inevitable conclusion is that in many cases, the men
emigrated leaving the women behind. The economic conditions
in the country have made emigration a necessity, but although
the Christian population was smaller in number than the
Hindu, the number of Christian emigrants has been larger than
the number of Hindu emigrants. Statistics also indicate that
the population is shifting from the rural areas to urban
centres.cv

Year Total population
1850 362 744
1860 363 788
(Christians: 232 189; Hindus: 128 824; Muslims: 2775)
1870 384 429
1875 390 500
1876 388 712
1877 392 239
1900 475 513
(Males: 227.393; Females: 248.120)
1910 548 242
(According to the census of 1910 by Portuguese India
registered the absence of 57157 natives from Goa, Daman and
Diu).cvi
1914 700 000
1926 520 000
1931 500 000
1949 624 147.
1950 637 846
(Hindus: 488 741 ; Catholics: 334 021)
1960 600 000

The density of population per sq. km in Goa went up from 399
persons in 1960 to 982 in 2005. The last population census
held in March 2001 shows a population density of 13,47,668.
Goa has a low birth rate (death rate and infant mortality
too) but a high and constant influx of migrants. The State
has reached the level of replacement in population control in
the 1990's. The latest estimate of Total Fertility Rate was
just 1.77. The population of Goa in 2050 is likely to be
26.72 lakh, an estimate based on the 36 assumption that there
may be no significant change in natural growth and net
migration until then.cvii

* * *

i International migration or emigration is the process of
leaving a country or region with the objective of
settling temporarily or definitively in another country.
ii Frederick (FN) Noronha, Goanet-News, 24-08-2008.
iii The Anglo-Lusitano, "Emigration Committee's
Report", Bombay, November 25, 1933. p. 10.
iv Cunha,, J., 226.
v Ibid.
vi Mascarenhas-Keys, "Death Notices" , 84, 91-92.
vii Malheiros, 129-30.
viii Mascarenhas-Keyes, Souvenir: International Goan
Convention '88, 16-20.
ix Cunha, J., 231.
x Mendon?a.
xi Costa, Preface.
xii Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 12. In 1929,
literacy reached 15%. Cunha, J., 242.
xiii That system was abolished in 1915. Zachariah, 50. The
average term of an indentured contract was three
years in 1867. The system flourished in Tamil Nadu and
to some less extent in Kerala from the caste of
untouchables. Ibid., 53.
xiv The Anglo-Lusitano, "Goan Emigration, Scope in Angola
and Mozambique", February 2, 1952, p. 1.
xv Souvenir, International, 16-20.
xvi Cunha, J., 227.
xvii Ibid., 228.
xviii Ibid., 166.
xix Ibid., 19-20.
xx Ibid., 233.
xxi Bombay, 18.6.1929.
xxii Cunha, J., 199, 201.
xxiii Ibid., 26.
xxiv Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London. Ruth de Souza,
"Goans in New Zealand, Goa and Around the World".
xxv Pinto, 75.
xxvi Cunha, T., 39.
xxvii Gracias, 123-24.
xxviii Ibid., 126.
xxix Ibid.
xxx Souza, 133.
xxxi Costa. Goans became doctors, veterinaries,
professors, engineers, architects lawyers, magistrates,
occupied positions in the army and navy, air force and
government offices, in business, hotels, insurance companies;
they became musicians, artists, painters, sportspersons,
formed orchestras, etc.
xxxii Mascarenhas-Keyes, "Death Notices", 91-92.
xxxiii Pinto, Preface.
xxxiv Mascarenhas-Keys, Goans in London, 12.
xxxv Ibid.
xxxvi Souza, 150.
xxxvii Relat?rio, 2-3.
xxxviii The Anglo-Lusitano, "Os Emigrantes: Haja
Industrializa??o", Feb. 11, 1933, p. 4.
xxxix Ibid., "Emigrants' Problems", March 11, 1933, p.5.
xl Souza, 145.
xli Pinto, 19.
xlii Costa, 115.
xliii Pinto, 19.
xliv Relat?rio, 6.
xlv Souza, 147.
xlvi Ibid., 145.
xlvii Costa, 113.
xlviii Larsen, 267-68.
xlix The Anglo- Lusitano "Unemployment among Goans",
1933, p. 12.
l Ibid., "A Crise Economica de Goa", Oct 21, 1933, p. 4.
li The Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1878 made Goa more
dependent on British India.
lii Comiss?o.
liii Souza, 153.
liv Souvenir, International, 84.
lv Haward, 299.
lvi Souvenir, International, 84.
lvii Ezdani.
lviii Ibid.
lix Ibid.
lx Costa, 171-73.
lxi Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 12.
lxii Albuquerque, 39.
lxiii Ibid., 13.
lxiv Ibid.
lxv The Anglo-Lusitano, "The World that Goans Built", p.
2, July 12, 1952, p. 2.
lxvi Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 13.
lxvii Ibid.
lxviii Gracias, 125.
lxix The Anglo-Lusitano, "Emigrants' Problems", March
11, 1933, p. 5.
lxx In the seventeenth century the Portuguese government
leased in the region of Zambezi large tracts of
land for cultivation to the colonizers many of them Indians
for a period of three generations as a measure
to assist the Portuguese in asserting their sovereignty in
the colony. The system disappeared by the end of
the nineteenth century.
lxxi Costa, 171-73.
lxxii Relat?rio, 268.
lxxiii Malheiros, 128-29.
lxxiv Ibid., 163, 167.
lxxv Navhind Times, Panaji, June 5, 2008, Panaji,
"Eduardo's Mozambique visit aimed at boosting
relations", p. 5; Herald, Panaji, June 6, 2008, p. 4.
lxxvi Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 13.
lxxvii Souvenir, Fiftieth.
lxxviii The Anglo-Lusitano, Oct. 4, 1952, p. 6. Norman
Godinho who arrived in Uganda in 1906 rose to be
one of the biggest landlords in Kampala. He was the owner
of several buildings and played an important
part in the building of modern Kampala. Souvenir, Fiftieth.
lxxix Adolfo Mascarenhas "Goans in Tanzania Today" a
talk delivered at the Xavier Centre of Historical
Research, April 30, 2008.
lxxx Costa, 190.
lxxxi Herald, Panaji, June 6, 2008, p. 4.
lxxxii The millionaires Dr M F Albuquerque and Dr Eugene
Menezes.
lxxxiii Albuquerque, 19.
lxxxiv Balthazar D'Souza a Goan and M. F. Albuquerque
respectively.
lxxxv The Anglo-Lusitano, "The Goans in Zanzibar", Jan.
18, 1933, p. 6.
lxxxvi Ibid., "The Entebbe Goans Institute Governor's
Visit", Aug. 23, 2008, p.2.
lxxxvii Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 21.
lxxxviii Mascarenhas-Keyes, "Death Notices", 89.
lxxxix Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 18.
xc Ibid.
xci Costa, 85.
xcii Malheiros, 132.
xciii Ibid., 132.
xciv Ibid., 140-41.
xcv Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London.
xcvi The Goan Review, "US itself has abut 5000 Goan
families", March-April 1998, p. 50.
xcvii Zachariah, 64.
xcviii Wagle.
xcix Wagle.
c Souvenir: International. Reunion of Goans from across the
world.
ci Costa, 187.
cii Ibid., 188-89.
ciii Goa Today, 10.
civ The Navhind Times, "Money factor still luring Goans
Abroad" by Minoo Fernandes, Panaji, January 25,
2008, p. 1.
cv The Anglo-Lusitano, "Census of Portuguese India",
March 22, 1951, p. 1.
cvi Metahistory, 239. 63.765 natives of Portuguese India
were registered in British India.
cviiGoa's Friday Balcao, 14th July,

Bibliography

Albuquerque, Teresa, Goans in Kenya, Mumbai, Popular Offset
Printers.
Alguns Aspectos Demogr?ficos de Goa, Dam?o e Diu, 1965.
Castro, Jeronymo Os?rio de, Relat?rio Annu?rio da
Administra??o do Concelho das
Ilhas de Goa -- 1904 , , Nova Goa, Imprensa Nacional , 1904.
Comiss?o Administrativa do Fundo dos Emigrantes, Nova Goa,
Imprensa Nacional, 1936.
Costa, P.J. Peregrino da, A Expans?o do Go?s pelo Mundo,
Goa, Colec??o de Divulga?e Cultura, No. 28, 1956.
Cunha, J. J. da, Nossa Terra. Estudos Econ?micos,
Financeiros, Sociais e Internacionais,
Vol. 1, Bastor?, Tipografia Rangel, 1939.
Cunha, T. B., Goa's Freedom Struggle, Bombay, New Age
Printing Press, 1961.
Dias, Remy, "Consumption History of Estado da India:
Migration and its Impact, 1850-
1950", in Metahistory, Charles Borges and Pearson,
(Coord.), Lisbon, Nova
Vega, 2007, pp. 235-45.
Ezdani, Yvonne Vaz (ed), Songs of the Survivors, Goa, Goa
1556, 2007.
Fernandes, Avertano C., "Emigra??o Indo-Portuguesa",
offprint of Boletim da Sociedade
de Geografia de Lisboa, 1938, nos. 7 & 8.
Friday Balcao, 14 July, 2008. "Focus on Factors for Goa's
Population Growth".
Goa Today, "Call of the Gulf", Vol. XXIII, No. 2, October
1988.
Gracias, F?tima da Silva, The Many Faces of Sundorem: Women
in Goa, Panjim, Surya
Publications, 2007.
Haward, Raffat Khan, "An Urban Minority: The Goan Christian
Community in Karachi", The City in South Asia: Pre-Modern and
Modern, Kenneth Ballhatchet and Harrison (eds), Centre of
South Asian Studies, Curson Press, London, 1980, pp.
299-318.
Indo-Portuguese Association, The Fourth Annual Report 1914,
Calcutta, 1915.
Larsen, Karin , Faces of Goa, New Delhi, Gyan Publishing
House, 1998.
Malheiros, Jorge Maca?sta, Imigrantes na Regi?o de
Lisboa: Os Anos da Mudan?a,
Edi??es Lisboa, Colibri, 1996.
Mascarenhas-Keyes, Stella, "Death notices and dispersal:
International migration among
Catholic Goans", in Jeremy Eades (ed), Migrants, Workers
and the Social Order,
ASA Monographs 26, London, Tavistock Publications, 1987, pp.
82-98.
--------, Goans in London: Portrait of a Catholic Asian
Community, A Goan Association
(UK) Publication, 1979.
Mendon?a, D?lio de, Conversions and Citizenry: Goa under
Portugal, 1510-1610, New
Delhi, Concept Publishing Company, 2002.
Pinto, J. B., Goan Emigration, Pangim, Printers Boa Sorte,
1958.
Rego, A. da Silva, "Ra?zes de Goa", Offprint of
Revista do Gabinete de Estudos
Ultramarinos, Lisboa, 1956.
Relat?rio da Comiss?o de Inqu?rito ? situa??o
dos emigrantes Indo-Portugueses na
India Brit?nica Apresentado a Sua Ex.? o Governador-geral
do Estado da India, Nova Goa, Imprensa Nacional, 1931.
Souza, Robert de, Goa and the Continent of Circe, Bombay,
Wilco Publishing House, 1973.
Souvenir, Fiftieth Anniversary, Goan Institute of Kampala,
1960.
Souvenir, International Goan Convention '88, Toronto.
Wagle, N.K.,
www.multiculturalcanada.ca/ecp/content/goans.html.
Zachariah, K.C., E T Mathew and S Irudaya Rajan, Dynamics
of Migration in Kerala:
Dimensions, Differentials and Consequences, New Delhi, Orient
Longman, 2003.
K.C.Zachariah., S.Irudaya Rajan, Migration, Remittances and
Employment Short-term
trends and Long-term Implications. Working Paper 395, Centre
for Development Studies,
Trivandrum, December 2007

THIS IS AN excerpt from the Goa Migration Study, 2008. Goanet Reader
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Permalink
EMIGRATION FROM GOA: A HISTORICAL VIEW
Excerpt from the Goa Migration Study 2008 (Goa NRI Commission)

1. Introduction

Goans have been migrating before, during and after the
colonial times. From the beginning of the sixteenth century,
Goa became the earliest territory in the non-western world
that was exposed to Western culture and values. The influence
of the new Western culture, or rather, that fusion of Eastern
and Western cultures that the Goans grew up with, encouraged
traditions of knowledge, honesty and hard work and opened to
the doors to the world to Goans, providing them with a
distinct advantage wherever they went.

The influence of Christianity, Western education and cultural
syncretism endowed the Goans with an inclusive identity and
facilitated their migration and adaptation to new and
different cultural contexts. Goans have played a very
significant part, although not often fully recognised, in the
creation of modern Indian culture in different areas of life
and art.

The Goan identity has been acknowledged as being
unique and has been appreciated universally. The opinion poll
held in Goa in 1967, during which Goans decided against
merging Goa with any other neighbouring state, speaks volumes
for the determination of the Goans in preserving their unique
cultural identity and autonomy. Their cultural identity
earned national recognition when on May 31, 1987 Goa became
the 25th state in the Republic of India.

Goans living in different parts of the world have
carved out a world of their own on the solid
foundation of their ancient culture. A significant
portion of Goa's prosperity is accounted for by
international migration.i Remittances have enabled
Goans to step up their investment in education,
real estate and housing considerably. Besides
accounting for large remittances, the migrants have
also served as unofficial ambassadors of an
inclusive and unique culture. It is obvious that
migration studies help to understand the identity
of the emigrants who, in many instances, never
returned to their country of 11 origin. The more
connected they feel to their original identity,
culture and heritage, the greater will be their
contribution to their country of origin in terms of
remittances or as unofficial ambassadors.

The long history of Goan emigrants has been captured in the
very emotional Goan song in Konkani 'Adeus Korchea Vellar'
(The Time to Say Goodbye). It conveys the sentiments of a
people who have known the price of separation from a land
that is so full of scenic beauty, so peaceful yet lacking in
employment opportunities.ii Goa was a Portuguese enclave for
over four centuries; it had clearly demarcated political
boundaries.

Naturally, migration to destinations outside Goa involved
crossing national boundaries. Obviously, any out-migration
to India before Goa was integrated into the Indian Union was
perceived as international.

Christian (Catholic) Goans had a higher geographical and
occupational mobility because of their easy adaptability to
any environment, their cultural openness and hospitable
nature. Education was a strong factor influencing emigration.

Modern life has created serious problems for the migrants as
well as concerns for the host countries and countries of
origin. Violation of human rights of migrant workers and of
their families have led governments to initiate campaigns for
informing citizens about their rights and obligations and
preparing emigrants to solve their severe problems at the
place of destination.
From the beginning of the twentieth century, nations have
been paying greater attention to the grievance and
difficulties of the emigrants. Concerns, issues and problems
of the emigrants have been debated at the national level
since suitable solutions often eluded them, except for a
perception that solutions needed to be global and
sustainable.

Several nations have embarked on scientific studies of
migration movements and its dynamics in recent decades using
new data from surveys and they claim to have greater control
over migration for enacting legislation. Attempts are being
made in initiating policies and schemes for migrants' welfare
in the sending countries and also for involving the migrants
in the development of the origin countries. In spite of the
Goan emigration spanning centuries and becoming worldwide,
the phenomenon has not yet been examined in depth. The task
is not going to be easy due to lack of reliable records. 12

The Portuguese administration of Goa was not in the
practice of registering the number of Goan
emigrants. In the years of the Great Depression,
the Portuguese Law Commission in Goa had appointed
a committee of inquiry to study the social and
economic conditions of Goans in British India and
to recommend the means for securing the wellbeing
of the migrants.

This committee received support from the civil and
ecclesiastical authorities and from the entire Goan community
which offered financial and medical assistance. As a result a
Goan Emigration Fund was created.iii The committee organised
relief work, including a subsistence allowance to the poor
Goans, and encouraged the emigrants to initiate projects back
home.

Critical issues affecting Goa were widely discussed. This
period also witnessed the beginning of a serious study of
Goan migration. Perceptions about Goan emigration abound as
do theories to explain the process of emigration itself.
Emigrants constitute a significant economic force both in the
host country and in the country of origin. Remittances by
migrants have done more to alleviate poverty rather than help
develop other sectors.

In the past, the survival and development of certain
industries critically depended on emigrants. Besides sending
regular remittances, every emigrant who returned to Goa even
for a short vacation contributed to its economy. In general,
migration brought about visible improvement to the social and
economic life of the Goans.

Traditional explanations viewed Goan emigration as
an involuntary act or as a desperate act of escape
from a hapless situation by those who looked down
upon Goa as primitive and a place where one could
do nothing do raise one's personal status. High
population density, which exerted pressure on
employment, was a major cause for migration.

There was a perception that the most able-bodied Goans
(educated or uneducated, skilled or unskilled) were forced to
regard migration as the natural course and took advantage of
it at the earliest available opportunity, except perhaps the
Hindus. Additionally, the nationalistic discourse began to
hammer a feeling into the emigrant Goans as being
'denationalised' Goans with little love for Goa.iv Goans felt
that a great number of Portuguese laws which were
particularly harsh forced the natives to emigrate.v To the
Portuguese Government in Goa, Goan emigration was inevitable
and large-scale 13 migration to British India was a necessary
economic evil, although many of them were happy to return if
job opportunities could be found in Goa.

Besides work in the moribund agricultural sector, Goa could
offer little else.

Recent studies recognise that migration involves more than
passive reactions to unfavourable economic opportunities at
home and it does not necessarily lead to a clean snapping of
ties with the country of origin. People take deliberate
measures to improve their lifestyle and that of their
relatives in other geographical locations with more
favourable labour markets. In fact, this constitutes a
determinant for the large-scale and global dispersion or
international migration of Christian Goans in recent
decades.vi

Wherever Goans have settled down, they contributed
very significantly. A major wave of migration from
Goa began in 1830, initially towards British India,
made possible by improvements of transport, the
commercial decadence of Goa and the growing demand
for labour in cities like Bombay and Pune.

The fact that the Goans were the only Westernized and
academically qualified persons that the British could count
upon, explains their recruitment to several sectors like
education, administration and health. The presence of Goans
in large numbers outside Goa can be judged by the fact that
their remittances were essential for balancing the commercial
transactions in Goa.vii

Goa, although a small place, has a vast international
diaspora. Goans have travelled during the colonial times to
almost all corners of the world, so much so that it would be
difficult to name a country without a Goan community.viii

Unfortunately, we lack reliable statistics on Goan emigration
which makes the numbers rather speculative. However, we might
venture to assert that the widening adverse balance of trade
served as an impetus to emigration. The majority of emigrants
did not have the necessary background and the Portuguese
Government did almost nothing for the prospective migrants.ix

Emigration, whether to places like Myanmar decades ago or to
the Gulf in more recent times, has come largely from the
Christian population in the State due to a range of
historical factors. Hindu Goans also migrated but they formed
a small minority in comparison with Christians. Assessment of
the positive and negative consequences of migration can
provide new insights into its impact on society as a whole
and on particular 14 categories (e.g,, migrant households).
In this chapter we attempt to make such an assessment.

2. The State of Goa (political unit)

A brief history of Goa will serve as an introduction to the
determinants and consequences of Goan migration to India and
overseas and to issues relating to migration such as
identity, adaptability and emergence of new cultural
patterns.

Goa, on the southwest coast of India, has an area of 3,701
square kilometres. The Bhojas, Mauryas, Chalukyas,
Rashtrakutas, Shilaharas, Kadambas, Yadavas, Bahmanis, the
Vijayanagar and the Bijapur dynasties ruled Goa at different
times. During ancient times, Goa was famous for its seaport
and international commercial traffic.

It is no wonder that the Goans could have had commercial
connections with the ancient cultures of Mesopotamia and the
Indus Valley. Goans traded with East Africa in the tenth
century which shows that they were truly seafarers and
intercontinental movers. Goa's global trade and traffic
increased manifold when the Portuguese captured it from the
Muslim rulers in 1510.

The city of Goa evolved into a major port of call
and as a business station between Europe and the
East. In 1530, it became the capital of the
Portuguese Eastern Empire. A unique culture, a
fusion of Eastern and Western values, Goa began to
be increasingly admired for its Indo-Portuguese
cultural and architectural characteristics from the
nineteenth century.x It remained a Portuguese
colony for about 450 years until 1961.

Many Portuguese seamen died in the tropics and so the
Christian Goans became part of the Portuguese seafaring
tradition. They sailed on Portuguese ships throughout the
Indian Ocean to the Far East, Africa, Brazil and Europe. We
come across Goans in Macao since the seventeenth century. In
1784, 150 Goan soldiers arrived in Macao to defend it.
Hindus have been somewhat reluctant to sail due to the old
religious and cultural prejudices or to the attachment to the
joint family with its traditional values. There is little
evidence to suggest that Hindu Goans migrated outside the
Indian subcontinent. 15

The intense missionary activity led the local Hindu
population to convert to Christianity. Many Hindus resisted
conversion and migrated to the neighbouring regions of
Karwar, Belgaum and Mangalore during the period of the mass
conversion movement initiated in the 1540s. Migration was
preferred to abandoning traditional religious and cultural
practices; heavy taxation was another reason for leaving the
land.xi

Reputed for its long white sandy beaches, and houses and
churches with unique architectural traits, Goa has become the
most attractive tourist destination along India's western
coast. The state of Goa has more than 1.3 million people
which include Hindus (65%), Christians (34%), and a small
community of Muslims. Before 1961, Goa had a population
comprising 42 percent of Christians, the majority living in
'Old Conquests'. At this point, we need to clarify two
concepts: the 'Old Conquests' of Goa (territories conquered
by the Portuguese from 1510 to 1543) and the 'New Conquests'
(territories contiguous to the Old Conquests which were
annexed and added to Goa in the last quarter of the
eighteenth century).

The New Conquests cover three fourths of the area
of present state of Goa and have remained
predominantly Hindu. Obviously, the Portuguese
influence on the Old Conquests has been significant
as is evident from a large Christian population.
The majority of emigrants have originated from
here. Obviously most studies on emigration have
been linked the Old Conquests (Bardez, Salcete,
Tiswadi and Mormugao).

Conversion to Christianity, Western education and Portuguese
law brought radical changes in lifestyle, including dietary
habits, attire and world view. Education, through the medium
of Portuguese language, was reserved to Christians although
not exclusively until the 1750s when more egalitarian social
reforms were introduced in Portugal and Goa.

In 1910, Portuguese law mandated a secular education and from
then on, many Hindus availed of education in the Portuguese
medium. The Portuguese established one or two schools in
every village and in the middle of the nineteenth century
they founded in the capital city of Panaji, a Lyceum where
all sciences were taught, a Medical College and a Law
College. Many intellectuals, doctors and lawyers studied
there and subsequently emigrated to other Portuguese colonies
like Mozambique, Angola and Macao.xii 16

Although the Old Conquests were densely populated,
the Portuguese did not do much to set up new
industries, and the existing ones proved inadequate
to generate sufficient employment. Consequently,
nearly one tenth of the population was forced to
migrate.

In 1930s, 70,000 Goans had migrated, out of which 55,000
migrated to British India. In 1960, on the eve of Goa's
political liberation there were 100,000 emigrants in a
population of 600,000. Surprisingly, in spite of the lack of
employment opportunities misery never prevailed in Goa. Goa
has no history of indentured labour or a system of
quasi-slavery of agricultural work force created by the
British -- as a consequence of the abolition of slavery in
the British Empire in 1834 and the shortage of workers -- for
their sugarcane and tea plantations, in other colonies.xiii 17

a. Society and Economy

The major traditional occupation was subsistence farming of
land owned jointly by the gauncars (native inhabitants) and
managed by the village communities, but soon after the
arrival of the Portuguese a system of private property was
introduced. Despite being an agrarian society only a small
percentage of the population, about 10% derived direct
sustenance from the land; scarcely 2% of the population owned
landed property, which yielded a return sufficient for the
maintenance of the owner and of his family.xiv

The agriculturists who cultivated their rice fields earned
just enough to keep themselves and their families alive. At
least 40% of the adult male population had to migrate in
order to earn a living. The population census of 1881 shows
that the number of cultivators of 'toddy' and makers of
'jaggery' (coconut confection) in the entire 'Estado da
India' (Goa, Daman and Diu) was 7,512, but from that year to
1910 the number came down to almost 4,000 (i.e., 3,512
persons had emigrated).

In contrast to the deteriorating economic conditions,
declining agricultural output and rise of population, various
international developments taking place around the middle of
the nineteenth century raised fresh hopes of employment
opportunities. The introduction of steamships reduced
distances. The military and civilian settlements of the
British in India, Burma and Middle East created a huge demand
for personnel who could meet European tastes in food, drink,
music, dress and medicine.

Christians, who had been distressed by the adverse
local conditions, took advantage of these
opportunities, unlike Hindus and Muslims, and they
worked as cooks, stewards, butlers, musicians,
tailors, ayahs (servant maids) and bakers; a few
worked as pharmacists, clerks, doctors and nurses.
The honesty and hard work demonstrated by the Goans
stood them in good stead and the British officials
and commercial companies began preferring them as
their employees.

Early migrants rarely brought their families along with them
and many of those who came to British India stayed at the
famed residential clubs for workers ('Coors') founded by
Goans as a support structure for migrants.xv From the 1920s
the Portuguese government began levying an 'emigration tax'
on every Goan intending to leave Goa in search of
employment.xvi In 1933, an 'emigration tax' of 18 10-12
'tangas' (Rs 1.00) per person brought in an annual revenue of
Rs 60,000.00.

There was an agitation against that tax which was,
interestingly, also imposed on Goan emigrants returning home.
Moreover the Portuguese government introduced a 'military
tax' to be paid before a Goan's departure from Goa to seek
employment elsewhere despite the evident fact that the
emigrant contributed substantially to the Goan economy
through remittances.

Emigrants had to pay a tax on their property in Goa
which forced many to invest outside Goa. Around
this time when entire families emigrated
permanently they preferred to sell their ancestral
properties in Goa.

Thus important Goan settlements appeared in Santa Cruz in
Mumbai, Calcutta, Karachi, Aden, etc.xvii In the 1920s,
emigration to British India was on the increase but the
thenworld economic crisis forced many to return to Goa.xviii

In 1928, the emigrants had sent home remittances to the tune
of Rs. 134.25 lakh. The remittances enabled the emigrants'
families to maintain a high standard of living as they could
pay for luxury goods, like silk clothing and fine cotton,
wines, liqueur, beer and cigars.xix Goa owed much to the
emigrants whose remittances were responsible for covering the
state's annual deficit of Rs. 138 lakh.xx According to
official statistics on import/export as reported in the
newspaper Times of India,xxi exports for 1928 was Rs. 46 lakh
and imports, Rs.184 lakh, or four times more than exports.xxii

As living in Goa became more expensive, emigration to British
India increased. The Portuguese government encouraged
migration and the British welcomed it.xxiii With the
departure of the British from India in 1947, Goans who were
employed in considerable numbers in British firms lost their
jobs which resulted in their return home in 1948-59.xxiv

Further, the prohibition of liquor led to the closing down of
many hotels and restaurants owned or staffed by Goans.
Suitable employment was scarce and even the educated Goans
experienced great difficult in securing jobs in the
Government. Earlier, British East Africa had attracted a
large number of Goans, but the immigration laws in course of
time became severe and work permits were not easily
available.

Angola and Mozambique opened their labour markets to skilled
and unskilled emigrants. Nevertheless, many continued to
migrate to Belgaum, Pune and Bombay to educate their children
in English medium schools and colleges. 19

With a stagnant Goan economy, Goans looked outwards for work.
Moreover, most of the communities like the Gawdas and Kunbis
(original inhabitants of Goa) as well as several other
communities of agriculturists gave up their farming
activities and shifted to construction-related sectors as
agriculture could not offer enough returns. Moreover, some
held work on the farm in low esteem.

The constant increase in tax on the coconut produce
caused the emigration of many tillers to British
India. The discovery of iron ore and manganese
resources in Goa in the 1950s provided some relief,
but even that did not prevent considerable
emigration. After the liberation of Goa in 1961
further emigration occurred. The tourism industry
in the 70s provided a huge relief.

The mining industry and the accompanying alluring incentives
created acute problems like scarcity of labour for
agriculture. The wages which labourers were offered in the
mines were twice as much as the wages paid for working in the
fields or palm groves in the villages. The labourer could not
resist the offer. The mass departure of labour to the mining
sector was unstoppable, creating fears of shortage of labour
for the rice fields and palm trees. The government persuaded
the mine owners to use machinery in order to minimise damage
to agriculture.

Emigration was held responsible for the dwindling of
agriculture and industry, so also for many other misfortunes
of Goa.xxv Emigration slowed down the economic progress of
Goa. But restrictions on exports due to tariff barriers
reduced the country's productivity. Emigration rose due to
the scarcity of work, lack of industries and the
disproportion between wages and cost of living caused by the
government's policy of high customs duties.xxvi Sadly, Goan
emigrants contributed to foreign lands at the cost of their own.

b. Female Migration

Women rarely accompanied their migrant husbands. However, the
migration of Goan women to the neighbouring states is not a
recent phenomenon though there are no statistics to show the
flow of female migration. Female migration to British India
and Africa began in the first half of the twentieth century,
and to other parts of world from 1961. Some migrated due to
the high cost of living in Goa and a few others, to further
their studies. Goan women in Africa and India took up jobs of
teachers, clerks, secretaries, typists, nurses, and worked in
factories owned by the rich British and Parsi 20 families.

Their standard of living was much higher than that
of most of their counterparts in Goa.xxvii The fact
that they were absorbed in such jobs reflects the
greater independence and skills of Goan women.

Some women migrated alone, others to marry Goans, these often
settled in British India or Bombay. These women from the
poorer classes, were unskilled workers between the ages of
18-45 years from Christian and Hindu backgrounds. Women from
middle and upper classes seldom migrated except for
furthering their studies or accompanying with their husbands.
Lack of institutions of higher education in Goa led some
parents to send their children for higher studies to Bombay,
Bangalore, Pune, Belgaum and Dharwar.xxviii

Migration also had some ill effects. As reported in 1923, 510
Goan women were working as prostitutes and for this reason
the Church in Goa began discouraging migration of women.xxix
The majority of such women belonged the tradition of temple
dancing girls. Emigration might have led to some moral
degradation but the conduct of the emigrants, devotion to
work, employer and family was commendable and their services
were greatly sought after.xxx

c. Trends in Goan Emigration

Large-scale international migration from Goa took place only
during the past 170 years. Migration trends according to
destination or changing patterns could be illustrated in
chronological order as follows: British India and Asia: From
1850s, with the establishment of the railway lines and the
steam ships, the Goans, especially the Christians equipped
with English education, went mainly to Bombay and also to
Pune, Dharwar and Calcutta, and many, by their own efforts
and competence, occupied important positions.xxxi

Some chose to travel to Karachi, others to the east across
mainland India to ports like Madras and Calcutta and thence
From the early decades of the twentieth century, Goans began
settling down mainly in Portuguese and British colonies in
East Africa. Europe and America: Considerable emigration
took place to these regions after World War II. 21

Gulf Countries: This region became the main destination for
Goans with the discovery of oil in 1970s.

Destinations were determined mostly by economic factors such
as opportunities for employment or labour shortage.
Immigration laws were another major determinant. But the
choice of destination could also be influenced by contacts --
relatives and friends or acquaintances who had migrated
earlier. Clubs and associations sprang up to provide cheap
accommodation to the newly arrived migrants. Goans generally
migrated on the strengths of personal contacts, with no
government sponsorship or church support.xxxii

3. British India - Asia

Goans began working for the British when the naval fleet of
the British Indian government was stationed in Goa between
1797 and 1813, in anticipation of an attack by the French
(which never took place) on the British Indian Possessions.
The British naval personnel recruited Christian Goans to work
for them because of the latter's western penchant which
pleased the British. When the British fleet withdrew from Goa
and established stations in Bombay, Karachi, Madras, Calcutta
and Singapore their Goan staff followed them.xxxiii

Migration of Goans to British India continued throughout the
early part of the nineteenth century, but it was since the
middle of the century that a significant flow of migration
took place. Immediately after the Indian Mutiny in 1857, the
British reasserted their power with the proclamation by Queen
Victoria of the takeover of the Indian affairs by the British
Crown. The British then began setting up a vast railway
network for the quick movement of troops.

The Goans poured out of Goa and got jobs on the
Great Indian Peninsula Railway and the Bombay
Baroda and Central Indian Railway. The construction
of the Western Indian Portuguese railways in the
late nineteenth century provided additional impetus
for the Goans from the Old Conquests to migrate,
and subsequently they settled in large numbers in
Hubli, Belgaum, Mumbai and Pune.xxxiv

The Portuguese government opened English medium schools in
Bardez and Salcete to prepare the Goan emigrants, so much so
that there were more such schools than 22 Portuguese ones.
Moreover parents sent their wards to the neighbouring cities
of Pune, Belgaum, Mumbai and Bangalore since life there was
cheaper and English education was more advantageous.xxxv

In 1911, the census of British India registered
636,75 individuals born in Portuguese India.
Excess of population in Goa, poor management of
agriculture and absence of industries produced
waves of migration.

In 1919, Goans settled in Bengal (1,000) and Calcutta
(800).xxxvi In 1931, Goa had a population of 500,000. Around
55,000 to 60,000 people, mostly from the Old Conquests,
hacked a living in British India. Spread throughout India
they formed prominent groups in Bombay (45000), Karachi
(3,500), Calcutta (1,000), Rangoon (800) and of these only
7,500 were Hindus and Muslims.xxxvii In the same year,
emigration increased since the emigrants moved with their
families with the intention of settling down especially in
Bombay and Karachi. In 1933 there were 100,000 Goan
emigrants of whom 60,000 lived in British India.xxxviii

British India ran into a serious recession in the 1930s. The
Goan Emigrants Fund Committee, organised to deal with the
crisis, through its relief measure, trained many poor,
especially women in sewing, nursing, care of infants, etc.,
and helped them to secure employment on reasonably good
wages.

Lack of training resulted in their being exploited by
unscrupulous employers. The number of educated among the
local population had increased, but they did not mind doing
any job regardless of the wage. On the other hand, the Goans
showed lack of adaptability and initiative; they waited for
clerical work and showed little interest in any other work.

Seamen, during their enforced leisure, would not
accept work in the agricultural sector. Domestic
workers were averse to working as salesperson,
likewise gardening or rearing of poultry was
abhorred.xxxix Unemployment was widespread among
the Goans in British India in 1936 and one of the
measures proposed by the Goan Emigrants Fund
Committee was to settle them on land left
uncultivated in the New Conquests due to shortage
of labour.

Despite facilities and subsidies from the government, lack of
water and failed monsoons discouraged the agriculturist
settlers. A great number had returned to Goa; others had
opted for the Gulf countries. 23

In 1938, Bombay counted 45,000 Goans, Karachi 4,500, Pune
2,500, Calcutta 1,200, Rangoon 800 and Nagpur 500, besides
smaller numbers in other centres. Of these only 8,000 were
Hindus and Muslims and the rest were Christians.xl World War
II opened up opportunities for labour and in 1947, there were
around 100,000 Goans in British India,xli of whom 10,000 were
illiterate and working in low-paid jobs as cooks and as ayahs.

Ten years later, in 1956, the number of Goans in India and
Karachi continued to be 100,000.xlii Wherever they had been,
they founded institutes, reading rooms, cultural centres,
leisure venues for social conviviality, and established
charitable associations, all of which revealed their sense of
solidarity. Celebrations of feasts of saints and patrons of
their native villages carried out with fervour and pomp speak
volumes for their attachment to tradition. Around 1958, food
grains in Goa became more expensive than in British India
compelling many Goans to migrate increasingly.xliii The Goan
migrants lived on modest salaries; the majority lived on a
monthly salary of less than Rs 100.00 in 1938.xliv

a. Bombay

Bombay belonged to the Portuguese until 1661 when it was
given to Britain as part of the dowry of Queen Catherine who
was married to Charles II of England. Since then the British
helped Goans to migrate and some families settled in
Mazagaon.

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, when Bombay was
growing as a business centre the number of Goans was already
high and in the 1950s, Bombay counted 8,000 Goans who
occupied positions in business, liberal professions and
administration, and later female emigrants of lower strata
joined the domestic labour force.xlv

Emigration increased with the economic development of the
city. During World War I, there were over 12,000 Goan seamen
in Bombay and after the war around 7,500. Goan emigration
must have increased 30 to 50 per cent between 1915-1935.xlvi
Around 12,000 Goans worked in public services in Bombay in
1956.xlvii

Hindu Brahmins, culturally and educationally more
advanced, migrated to Bombay during the early
1900s; some established jewellery shops and did
well as a community. Christians from lower
communities migrated and opened tailoring shops;
the more 24 resourceful ones opened restaurants and
guest-houses.xlviii A number of Goans improved
their lot, while many others had to struggle to
survive.

The Goan Emigrants Fund Committee, an official organisation
established in Bombay, reported serious unemployment, poorly
paid jobs and extreme poverty among the Goans. Unemployment
worsened with the arrival of labourers from other parts of
India in the 1930s who were willing to work for any wage,
while the Goans were not willing to leave Bombay or forgo the
amenities of urban life to settle in Goan villages.

Although the Goa government announced easy loans and enacted
legislation on land tenure, the Goans did not seem to be
interested in availing of these facilities.xlix They depended
absolutely on British India. Reduced exports from Goa on the
one hand and expensive imports on the other combined with the
return of emigrants to Goa who remained idle, deepened the
economic crisis.l

The employment situation in Bombay was of serious concern to
the Portuguese government in Goa, since Goa was totally
dependent on economic conditions in British India.li The
Portuguese government did not spare any effort to find
different solutions and framed policies to resolve the issue.
To alleviate the poverty of Goans in Bombay, the Goa
government sought to repatriate those with no possibility of
finding employment in Bombay. The government motivated the
expatriates to take up land for cultivation in the Sanguem
region of Goa with financial assistance from the
government.lii

The Goan community in Bombay was one of the most active in
several fields including the establishment of schools. The
city of Bombay became a place for exile and political
activity for the Goans in the second half of the nineteenth
century, when Goa experienced political uncertainty as a
result of the establishment of constitutional monarchy in
Portugal in 1820.liii

Bombay, a place to migrate to, was since the 1950s, replaced
by Bangalore, the Gulf countries, United Kingdom, United
States, Canada and Australia, these being the most popular
destinations in recent years. Bombay had become a stepping
stone for migration to different parts of the world. 25

b. Pakistan

The Goans, mostly Christians, arrived in Karachi in 1842 when
the British occupied that small fishing village.liv Despite
the social constraints imposed on them, this cohesive
minority community achieved quick success. Goans served as
clerks in government offices, in the armed forces and some
opened businesses.lv

Already a sizable number were residing in the city
in 1869 and later, from 1913, the 'coors' assisted
the working class to migrate to Pakistan. By the
turn of the century, several Goans had established
business houses of which a few became public
companies with Goans as their chief executives.
Many streets in Karachi were named after eminent Goans.

In 1947, Partition created new opportunities for qualified
Goans to occupy high positions in government services due to
the departure of the British and the Hindus.lvi However, the
formation of Pakistan in 1947, created uncertainty among the
Goans and with Goa's liberation in 1961 and its political
incorporation into the Indian Union, the Goans in Pakistan
had the links with their homeland completely severed. Many
Goans, mostly young, left Karachi. There were more than 5,000
Goans in Karachi in 1958.

c. Burma

When the Portuguese first went to Burma in the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries, they must have taken with them some
Goans but they did not settle there permanently. From the end
of the nineteenth century, Christian Goans began to migrate
to Burma or Myanmar as it is known today, but it was from the
early 20th century, that many settled in East Rangoon. Burma
always had an isolationist policy and never welcomed
foreigners till the 1980s.lvii

In 1886, King Thibaw was dethroned by the British and the
whole of Burma came under British rule. Many Goans were
transferred from the Indian Posts and Telegraphs Department
and Indian Railways (mostly from Karachi and Calcutta) to
Burma. In addition, many Goans with musical talent went to
Burma in the 1920s to provide their services to the silent
movie industry and to the flourishing cinema houses in 1930s.
Many of them stayed on as music teachers, dealers in musical
instruments and formed bands for clubs and hotels. We could
assume the existence of migratory waves of Goans to Burma 26
in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.lviii
There were 800 Goans in Rangoon in 1931.

When World War II broke out in Burma, there were no more than
a hundred Goan families living there. When the Japanese
planes bombed the city of Rangoon (Yangon) in 1941, Goan
emigrants were caught in the real life drama for survival.

Many trekked through jungles and mountains and streams amidst
great dangers and hardships back to India where they settled
in different places. Some Goans decided to stay on in Burma
during the Japanese occupation and a few others opted for
Burmese nationality. The Japanese invasion was the end of the
Goan emigration.lix

Burma became an independent republic in 1948.

4. East Africa

From as early as the sixteenth century, Goans had
helped the Portuguese to penetrate the inhospitable
territories in Africa.lx In the eighteenth century,
Goan traders settled in Mozambique and other parts
of East Africa. They participated in the trade in
ivory and gold between Goa and East Africa and
established large import-export businesses.lxi In
1921, the East Africa statistics of business listed
426 Goans.lxii

The second quarter of the nineteenth century witnessed
increasing interest and intense competition among the
European nations for laying exclusive claims on African
territories. This rivalry culminated in the Berlin Conference
(1884-85) and the British Ultimatum to Portugal (1890) meant
to regulate European colonisation and trade in Africa.
Finally, however, the African continent was divided among the
European competitors. The years following the 'Scramble of
Africa' saw a large number of emigrants assisting the
colonial nations in consolidating their claims.

Between 1890 and 1895, when the British government took over
the administration in East Africa, the policy of employing
Goans in the colonial civil service and telegraph offices was
already established. By 1890, there were 160 Goans in
Mombassa forming the backbone of the port administration.
When the British colonial government began constructing the
Uganda Railways in 1896, Goans were employed as stewards and
administrative staff for the East African Railways &
Harbours. There was however no indentured labour from
Goa.lxiii

At the turn of the century, emigration increased with the 27
expansion of British and Portuguese colonialism in Africa.
Knowledge of Portuguese and English helped the Goans.

The British India Steam Navigation Company (BISNC) had
employed Goans as clerks in their offices around the Indian
Ocean as early as 1874 and the company began relying on Goan
staff to run its offices in East Africa.lxiv On the whole,
Goans made tremendous progress in cities like Louren?o
Marques (today Maputo), Beira, Dar es Salaam, Nairobi,
Kampala, Mombassa and Zanzibar.lxv

Emigration reached a peak in the years between the World Wars
(1918 to 1939), when many Goan seamen who had served in the
Merchant or Royal Navy during the First World War moved to
East Africa with their families.lxvi With the independence of
India, many Goans employed in civil services and the army in
British India were offered jobs in East Africa by the British
government and a large number migrated between 1948 and 1959
and settled there for years until the independence of those
countries.lxvii

Goans contributed to pioneering work in the fields
of medicine, education, etc.lxviii Acute
unemployment hit Africa and Persia in 1930s forcing
hundreds of Goans to return home. The shipping
companies, always appreciative of the Goans'
performance and loyalty, began retrenching their
staff. It is pointed out that over 2000 unemployed
Goans in British East Africa had no financial
resources to return to India.lxix

a. Mozambique

Migration to Mozambique, a Portuguese colony, began in the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries but in the following
century we hear of Goan administrators, missionaries and
colonisers in control of 'Prazos da Zamb?zia'.lxx

The Portuguese colonies especially Mozambique recruited Goans
who were literate in Portuguese to work as clerks and
administrators. Some Goans became very rich and contributed
to the pacification or colonisation of local tribal chiefs
and population with their own local army in the region of
Zambezi. Others occupied high posts in the
administration.lxxi

The district administrator in Goa promoted emigration to
Mozambique. In 1897, the government appointed an Emigration
Commission (Comiss?o Protectora da Emigra??o) Mozambique
for the purpose of gathering all information regarding the
places where 28 the Goans could find employment as well as
information on salaries, and the government assisted those
who wished to migrate.lxxii Goans migrated to three major
cities: Maputo, Beira and Nampula. Maputo and Beira, regions
with a significant community, became favourite destinations
since the Goans possessed skills associated with public
institutions, administration and white collar jobs such as
doctors, judges, teachers, etc.lxxiii Older Goans worked in
administrative positions whereas the younger generation with
better education opted for liberal professions.lxxiv It is
observed that most Goans preferred white-collar jobs rather
than manual ones.

At present, around a thousand families of Goan origin reside
in Mozambique and many of the older ones would like to return
and settle down in Goa. Some of these Goans have attained
high positions in professional fields whereas others have not
done so well.lxxv Mozambique gained its independence in 1975
after twelve years of armed struggle.

b. Uganda

When Uganda was declared a British protectorate in 1894 there
were already Goans there.lxxvi Some had come during the
construction of the Uganda Railway and stayed on as civil
servants under the British administration. The law-abiding
character of the Goan community stood out remarkably.lxxvii
More Goans arrived in Kampala, Uganda in 1900' and
distinguished themselves in the field of sports and helped in
the development of sporting activities and musical
entertainment through the Goan Institute of Kampala.

In 1960, events in Uganda gave cause for concern, forcing
some to migrate to the West and others to return to Goa.
Goans, being industrious and peace-loving, played an
important role in the civil society and economic development
of Uganda. In East Africa, they earned the commendation of
high officers of the British Empire and lofty appreciation
from various governors.lxxviii Uganda became independent in
1960.

c. Tanganyika

Estimates show that 7,000 Goans resided in Tanganyika before
its independence in 1961, of which about 15 per cent still
remain in Tanzania, mostly in Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar, Arusha
and Mwanza. The majority returned to India, many from
Zanzibar moved to the 29 Gulf but a significant number went
to Canada, the United Kingdom, the USA, Australia, New
Zealand, Sweden and elsewhere. Even after the independence of
Tanganyika, many Goans continued to work in foreign
commercial banks until they were nationalised by President
Julius Nyerere. With the banks nationalised and the civil
service not really attractive, more and more Goans moved into
the private sector.

Goans in Dar es Salaam (and other towns) owned bars,
bakeries, clothing and tailoring shops, musical instrument
stores, butcheries, 'soda factories', etc., and contributed
considerably to photography business.lxxix The two former
British colonies, the United Republic of Tanganyika and
Zanzibar decided to unite in 1964, and soon after, in the
same year, it was renamed as the United Republic of Tanzania.

d. Kenya

The recorded history of Goans in Kenya goes as far back as
1865 with the arrival and establishment of Goan business
houses in Mombassa, but at the turn of the century the influx
increased. They arrived as sailors, cooks, tailors, railway
employees and clerks. Their preference for white-collar jobs
led them to found institutes such as the Goan Institute,
Mombassa in 1901, the Goan Institute, Nairobi in 1905 and the
Goan Gymkhana in 1936. Magnificent churches appeared wherever
there was a small community of Goans in towns and cities of
Kenya. It is said that there were 30,000 Goans in Kenya,
largely in Nairobi, in 1956.lxxx Presently there are only
about 500 Goan families in Kenya.lxxxi The British granted
political independence to Kenya in 1963.

e. Zanzibar

There have been Goans in Zanzibar since the middle of the
nineteenth century, but the first group of Goan entrepreneurs
landed there at the turn of the twentieth century.

In olden days, Zanzibar was regarded as the principal
destination of Goans in East Africa. Goans in Zanzibar were
among the most prosperous people and held in high esteem by
the Europeans, Indians and natives for their peaceful living.
Some Goans enjoyed great popularity in the Zanzibar
Island.lxxxii Goans numbered 59 in 1873lxxxiii and roughly
869 in 1933, and they enjoyed the patronage and favours of
the Sultan of Zanzibar; many of 30 them held leading
positions in the government. At that time, the Consul and
Vice-consul of Portugal were Goans.lxxxiv

The majority of educated Goans served in the government of
Zanzibar others were employed in various commercial
enterprises; some ran their own business and the rest were
employed in various manual trades.lxxxv Goans had almost the
monopoly of all trades and professions and worked as sailors,
grocers, tailors, bakers, merchants and cooks. Because of
their integrity and dedication to work, the local government
invited a large number of Goans to join government service.
The result was that Goans who were pioneer merchants and
grocers in East Africa lost gradually their place in commerce
and trade.lxxxvi

The early sixties led to uncertainty for all Asians in
Africa, particularly in East Africa because of the imminence
of the independence of Kenya, Tanganyika and Uganda. Many
Goans living in British Africa enjoyed Portuguese nationality
but from 1961 they could opt for Indian citizenship. When
India became a member of the Commonwealth, Goans in East
Africa were allowed to register themselves as British
subjects and many availed of this option and acquired a
British passport, but some older Goans preferred to retain
their Indian citizenship because of a strong desire to retire
to Goa. Many Goans left for Britain from 1962 onwards.
Britain granted Zanzibar political independence in 1963.
Goans enjoyed a high standard of living in Africa and
generally did not think of returning to India, but the
independence of the African colonies left them with few
opportunities in Africa.lxxxvii Those without alternatives
returned to Goa. The younger generation migrated to the Gulf
countries or elsewhere. Those from the British East Africa
migrated to different English-speaking countries; those from
Mozambique and Angola left for Portugal and Brazil.lxxxviii

5. The West The Goan presence in the West is largely the
result of changes in the political and economic scenario of
Africa in the 1960s and 1970s which saw the departure of
British and Portuguese colonialism and the emergence of
independent nations.lxxxix Goans born and brought up in
Africa by virtue of having opted for the British and
Portuguese 31 nationalities found no favours with the local
governments and subsequently migrated to Britain, Portugal,
Canada, USA, Australia and New Zealand.

The expulsion of Asians from Uganda by President Idi Amin in
1972 led to many young Goans opting to settle in Canada. Most
Goans in the U.K. and Portugal came from East Africa.xc

a. Portugal

After World War II, the northern and central European
countries required specialised immigrant labour to respond to
the demands of industrialisation. Industrialisation in
Portugal started only in the 1950s, but even then it was
incapable of absorbing its entire labour force; hence it not
only had no need of recruiting labour from the colonies, but
its excess labour had to emigrate in large numbers.

One wave of emigration persisted for about a hundred years
from the second half of the nineteenth century when Goan
intellectuals migrated to Portugal for university education
in Lisbon and Coimbra and became clerics, doctors, engineers,
lawyers, magistrates, teachers, journalists, officials in the
army and navy, in the bureaucracy in Portugal or in its
colonies, and occupied high positions.xci Many settled in
Portugal but a few were attracted to the great centres of
culture and learning like England, France, Germany, Belgium,
Austria, Switzerland and Italy where they took up higher
studies. Those Goans who migrated to Portugal for higher
studies before 1961 and who eventually settled there,
belonged to certain elite families.

In 1961, Goa was liberated and integrated with India. At this
point the Goans could opt for Portuguese citizenship. A
number of Goan professionals in mid-life decided to migrate
to Portugal in the post-Liberation period; however, the
majority of them did not settle in Portugal but migrated to
the Portuguese colonies, especially Mozambique.xcii Some
elite emigrants did not encounter any initial difficulty in
getting assimilated in the new socio-economic milieu.

Until 1975, many Goans settled in Portugal consisted of
lawyers, students, etc., but from then on the number of Goans
increased significantly with the arrival of a large community
from Portugal's former colonies in Africa, who had opted for
Portuguese 32 nationality. Majority of Goans who entered
Portugal between 1974 and 1977 came from Mozambique and
Angola.xciii Civil war in the colonies, lack of job
opportunities and assured pension for government employees
caused Goans to emigrate to Portugal. These immigrants would
provide initial support to other emigrants from Goa in the
1980s.

The latest stream of emigration from Goa occurred in the
1990s. They consisted mostly of educated youth, kith and kin
of persons who once were Portuguese subjects, aspiring for
better economic opportunities and standard of living.
Migration to Portugal from the middle of 80s was partly due
to their receiving Portuguese nationality. However, since
1991, the General Consulate of Portugal in Goa facilitated
the acquisition of nationality more easily.

A study conducted in 1992, shows the presence of 11,000 Goans
in Portugal of whom 6,000 lived in the area of Lisbon. This
is indicative of a greater degree of integration of Goans
vis-?-vis other Indian communities in Portugal.xciv
Generally, Christian Goans were found in liberal professions
and administrative positions.

b. United Kingdom - London

Around the middle of the nineteenth century, increasing
numbers of Goans, consisting mostly of seamen abandoned by
their shipping masters, settled in London. Census for this
period excludes Goans and other Asians as a landlord could be
imprisoned for housing them, but there is evidence from other
sources to establish the presence of Goans in London.

With the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 ships from India
could travel to the U.K. by a shorter route. Companies such
as the British India Steam Navigation Company (BISNC), which
were already employing Goan crew in the Indian Ocean, now
hired them on voyages to London via Suez. The early Goan
settlers were eventually assimilated into the general
population of East London and ceased to exist as a distinct
community by the beginning of the twentieth century.xcv When
the African nations won their independence in early 1960s, a
significant number of Goans emigrated to the U.K. This
British Goan community came generally from the 'Old
Conquests' of Goa. 33

c. USA

The early Goan settlers in the US arrived from East Africa
around 80 years ago; they were not well educated. Those who
migrated in more recent times (say about 25 years ago) were
mostly professionals. The second generation migrant Goans
have no strong ties with Goa. Goans being multi-cultural
have adapted very easily wherever they have gone.
Guesstimates show that 5,000 Goan families lived in the USA
in the 1990s.xcvi d. Canada Emigration of Indians to Canada
was not attractive till 1947.xcvii

Although Goans started emigrating to Canada in the 1960s, it
is estimated that over 90 per cent of them arrived during the
1970s, largely from East Africa and Pakistan, and a smaller
group directly from Goa. Still more recently, there has been
an increasing number of Goans emigrating to Canada from the
Middle East countries, the majority being Christians,
consisting of skilled, semi-skilled workers and
professionals. Since Goans are not listed separately in
Canadian census data, no reliable statistics are available
regarding their population. However, it is estimated that
there are approximately 13,000 Goans in Ontario and another
10,000 in the rest of Canada.xcviii

In Toronto and Montreal informal 'village associations' serve
as friendship and support societies for both established
Goans and new arrivals. These 'village associations' came
into existence in the wake of the large-scale emigration of
Goan Christians to Bombay in the late nineteenth century. One
of the main purposes of such 'clubs' was to celebrate the
feast of the patron saints of the respective Goan villages
and thus renew the emigrants' ties with their native village.
These associations made it possible for the Goans to retain
their ethnic identity.

Goans have had the advantage of Western cultural linkages,
accumulated over four centuries, to aid them in adapting to
any new environment. Yet their desire to maintain alive their
traditions and unique culture is obvious.xcix The First
International Goan Convention in Toronto, Canada in 1988 as
well as the more recent one in 2008 in the same city, made a
spirited appeal to Goans to preserve and enhance their own
culture, heritage and social capital. 34

6. The Middle East
From the early decades of the twentieth century, Goans worked
in various capacities in Iran, Kuwait, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia,
Ethiopia, Aden, Bushire, Abadan and Basra.ci With the
establishment of the British petroleum companies in the Gulf
Countries, the Goan community increased further. There were
about 1,200 Goans in Bagdad, Basra, Abadan, Bahrain and Saudi
Arabia in 1956. Bahrain alone accounted for 400 Goans; there
were smaller Goan population in other Gulf Countries earlier
-- in Kuwait (120), Iran (250) and Saudi Arabia (350).cii
Some Goans were employed as white-collar workers while others
were employed as domestic helps.

The Gulf oil boon in the 1960s and 1970s attracted thousands
of Goans and this trend lasted until the early 1980s. Many
Goans, including the not so highly educated ones, made
fortunes by working there until the local population improved
their educational levels. The major portion of remittances to
Goa came from the Goans in the Gulf and these emigrants
invested heavily in housing and real estate.

There were 50,000 Goans in Kuwait, Dubai and Abu Dhabi in the
70s and a total of 150,000 Goans in the Gulf in 1987.ciii
Goan migration to the Middle East was never a permanent
phenomenon since the countries in that region do not grant
citizenship to foreign nationals; however, many have spent
decades there. Goans still prefer to move to those countries,
believing that a job there would be more rewarding than
employment in Goa.civ

7. Population in Goa

Demographic trends have had a major impact on the extent and
direction of migration and in Goa during the Portuguese
regime emigration and absence of replacement migration
resulted in a decline of population and of the economy.
Looking at the population censuses, we are in a position to
estimate the flow of migration.

There has been an appreciable decline in the rate of increase
of the population as shown by the census data for Goa. In
1910, the population of Goa increased by 16,444 (3.1 per
cent), in 1931 there was an increase of 48,010 (9 per cent)
in the population, while in 1940 there was an increase of
only 42,207 (7.6 per cent).

The reason for this fall in the 35 rate of increase of the
population must be sought in the higher rate of emigration
especially in the districts of Pernem and Bardez. The census
data shows that while the number of women increased by 13112,
the increase in the number of men was only 557. The
inevitable conclusion is that in many cases, the men
emigrated leaving the women behind. The economic conditions
in the country have made emigration a necessity, but although
the Christian population was smaller in number than the
Hindu, the number of Christian emigrants has been larger than
the number of Hindu emigrants. Statistics also indicate that
the population is shifting from the rural areas to urban
centres.cv

Year Total population
1850 362 744
1860 363 788
(Christians: 232 189; Hindus: 128 824; Muslims: 2775)
1870 384 429
1875 390 500
1876 388 712
1877 392 239
1900 475 513
(Males: 227.393; Females: 248.120)
1910 548 242
(According to the census of 1910 by Portuguese India
registered the absence of 57157 natives from Goa, Daman and
Diu).cvi
1914 700 000
1926 520 000
1931 500 000
1949 624 147.
1950 637 846
(Hindus: 488 741 ; Catholics: 334 021)
1960 600 000

The density of population per sq. km in Goa went up from 399
persons in 1960 to 982 in 2005. The last population census
held in March 2001 shows a population density of 13,47,668.
Goa has a low birth rate (death rate and infant mortality
too) but a high and constant influx of migrants. The State
has reached the level of replacement in population control in
the 1990's. The latest estimate of Total Fertility Rate was
just 1.77. The population of Goa in 2050 is likely to be
26.72 lakh, an estimate based on the 36 assumption that there
may be no significant change in natural growth and net
migration until then.cvii

* * *

i International migration or emigration is the process of
leaving a country or region with the objective of
settling temporarily or definitively in another country.
ii Frederick (FN) Noronha, Goanet-News, 24-08-2008.
iii The Anglo-Lusitano, "Emigration Committee's
Report", Bombay, November 25, 1933. p. 10.
iv Cunha,, J., 226.
v Ibid.
vi Mascarenhas-Keys, "Death Notices" , 84, 91-92.
vii Malheiros, 129-30.
viii Mascarenhas-Keyes, Souvenir: International Goan
Convention '88, 16-20.
ix Cunha, J., 231.
x Mendon?a.
xi Costa, Preface.
xii Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 12. In 1929,
literacy reached 15%. Cunha, J., 242.
xiii That system was abolished in 1915. Zachariah, 50. The
average term of an indentured contract was three
years in 1867. The system flourished in Tamil Nadu and
to some less extent in Kerala from the caste of
untouchables. Ibid., 53.
xiv The Anglo-Lusitano, "Goan Emigration, Scope in Angola
and Mozambique", February 2, 1952, p. 1.
xv Souvenir, International, 16-20.
xvi Cunha, J., 227.
xvii Ibid., 228.
xviii Ibid., 166.
xix Ibid., 19-20.
xx Ibid., 233.
xxi Bombay, 18.6.1929.
xxii Cunha, J., 199, 201.
xxiii Ibid., 26.
xxiv Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London. Ruth de Souza,
"Goans in New Zealand, Goa and Around the World".
xxv Pinto, 75.
xxvi Cunha, T., 39.
xxvii Gracias, 123-24.
xxviii Ibid., 126.
xxix Ibid.
xxx Souza, 133.
xxxi Costa. Goans became doctors, veterinaries,
professors, engineers, architects lawyers, magistrates,
occupied positions in the army and navy, air force and
government offices, in business, hotels, insurance companies;
they became musicians, artists, painters, sportspersons,
formed orchestras, etc.
xxxii Mascarenhas-Keyes, "Death Notices", 91-92.
xxxiii Pinto, Preface.
xxxiv Mascarenhas-Keys, Goans in London, 12.
xxxv Ibid.
xxxvi Souza, 150.
xxxvii Relat?rio, 2-3.
xxxviii The Anglo-Lusitano, "Os Emigrantes: Haja
Industrializa??o", Feb. 11, 1933, p. 4.
xxxix Ibid., "Emigrants' Problems", March 11, 1933, p.5.
xl Souza, 145.
xli Pinto, 19.
xlii Costa, 115.
xliii Pinto, 19.
xliv Relat?rio, 6.
xlv Souza, 147.
xlvi Ibid., 145.
xlvii Costa, 113.
xlviii Larsen, 267-68.
xlix The Anglo- Lusitano "Unemployment among Goans",
1933, p. 12.
l Ibid., "A Crise Economica de Goa", Oct 21, 1933, p. 4.
li The Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1878 made Goa more
dependent on British India.
lii Comiss?o.
liii Souza, 153.
liv Souvenir, International, 84.
lv Haward, 299.
lvi Souvenir, International, 84.
lvii Ezdani.
lviii Ibid.
lix Ibid.
lx Costa, 171-73.
lxi Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 12.
lxii Albuquerque, 39.
lxiii Ibid., 13.
lxiv Ibid.
lxv The Anglo-Lusitano, "The World that Goans Built", p.
2, July 12, 1952, p. 2.
lxvi Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 13.
lxvii Ibid.
lxviii Gracias, 125.
lxix The Anglo-Lusitano, "Emigrants' Problems", March
11, 1933, p. 5.
lxx In the seventeenth century the Portuguese government
leased in the region of Zambezi large tracts of
land for cultivation to the colonizers many of them Indians
for a period of three generations as a measure
to assist the Portuguese in asserting their sovereignty in
the colony. The system disappeared by the end of
the nineteenth century.
lxxi Costa, 171-73.
lxxii Relat?rio, 268.
lxxiii Malheiros, 128-29.
lxxiv Ibid., 163, 167.
lxxv Navhind Times, Panaji, June 5, 2008, Panaji,
"Eduardo's Mozambique visit aimed at boosting
relations", p. 5; Herald, Panaji, June 6, 2008, p. 4.
lxxvi Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 13.
lxxvii Souvenir, Fiftieth.
lxxviii The Anglo-Lusitano, Oct. 4, 1952, p. 6. Norman
Godinho who arrived in Uganda in 1906 rose to be
one of the biggest landlords in Kampala. He was the owner
of several buildings and played an important
part in the building of modern Kampala. Souvenir, Fiftieth.
lxxix Adolfo Mascarenhas "Goans in Tanzania Today" a
talk delivered at the Xavier Centre of Historical
Research, April 30, 2008.
lxxx Costa, 190.
lxxxi Herald, Panaji, June 6, 2008, p. 4.
lxxxii The millionaires Dr M F Albuquerque and Dr Eugene
Menezes.
lxxxiii Albuquerque, 19.
lxxxiv Balthazar D'Souza a Goan and M. F. Albuquerque
respectively.
lxxxv The Anglo-Lusitano, "The Goans in Zanzibar", Jan.
18, 1933, p. 6.
lxxxvi Ibid., "The Entebbe Goans Institute Governor's
Visit", Aug. 23, 2008, p.2.
lxxxvii Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 21.
lxxxviii Mascarenhas-Keyes, "Death Notices", 89.
lxxxix Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London, 18.
xc Ibid.
xci Costa, 85.
xcii Malheiros, 132.
xciii Ibid., 132.
xciv Ibid., 140-41.
xcv Mascarenhas-Keyes, Goans in London.
xcvi The Goan Review, "US itself has abut 5000 Goan
families", March-April 1998, p. 50.
xcvii Zachariah, 64.
xcviii Wagle.
xcix Wagle.
c Souvenir: International. Reunion of Goans from across the
world.
ci Costa, 187.
cii Ibid., 188-89.
ciii Goa Today, 10.
civ The Navhind Times, "Money factor still luring Goans
Abroad" by Minoo Fernandes, Panaji, January 25,
2008, p. 1.
cv The Anglo-Lusitano, "Census of Portuguese India",
March 22, 1951, p. 1.
cvi Metahistory, 239. 63.765 natives of Portuguese India
were registered in British India.
cviiGoa's Friday Balcao, 14th July,

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THIS IS AN excerpt from the Goa Migration Study, 2008. Goanet Reader
is compiled and edited by Frederick Noronha <fn at goa-india.org> Send
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